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Health, Sports & Psychology

Alternative Therapies: References

Updated Tuesday 11th March 2008

The production team for Alternative Therapies drew on an extensive body of published research during the preparation of the series. Here, we present a selection of their scientific references:


Coan, James A.; Schaefer, Hillary S.; Davidson, Richard J. (2006) "Lending a Hand: Social Regulation of the Neural Response to Threat", Journal of Psychological Science vol. 17, pp. 1032-1039

Kaptchuk, Ted. (2002) "The Placebo Effect in Alternative Medicine: Can the Performance of a Healing Ritual Have Clinical Significance?", Annals of Internal Medicine vol 136, pp. 817-825

Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Stason, William B.; Davis Roger B. et al (2006) "Sham Device v Inert Pill: Randomised Controlled Trial of Two Placebo Treatments", BMJ 2006; pp. 391-397; originally published online 1 Feb 2006; doi:10.1136/bmj.38726.603310.55



Derbyshire, Stuart W.G.; Whalley, Matthew G.; Stenger, V. Andrew; Oakley, David A. (2004) "Cerebral activation during hypnotically induced and imagined pain", NeuroImage vol 23, pp. 392–401

Hofbauer, Robert K.; Rainville, Pierre; Duncan, Gary H.; Bushnell, M. Catherine (2001) "Cortical Representation of the Sensory Dimension of Pain", Journal of Neurophysiology vol 86, pp. 402–411.

Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Montgomery, Guy H. (2007) "Remembrance of Hypnosis Past", American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis vol 49, pp. 171-178

Kirsch, Irving; Cardeña, Etzel; Derbyshire, Stuart et al (2006) "Dissociated Definitions of Hypnosis and Hypnotizability: A European Consensus" [Unpublished manuscript]

Kirsch, Irving; Montomery, Guy; Sapirstein, Guy (1995) "Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy: A Meta-Analysis", Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology vol 63, pp. 214-220

Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Thompson, William L.; Constantini-Ferrando, Maria F. et al (2000) "Hypnotic Visual Illusion Alters Color Processing in the Brain", American Journal of Psychiatry vol 157, pp. 1279-1284

Montgomery, Guy H.; DuHamel, Katherine N.; Redd, William H. (2000) "A Meta-Analysis of Hypnotically Induced Analgesia: How Effective is Hypnosis?", International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis vol. 48, pp. 134-149

Montgomery, Guy H.; David, Daniel; Winkel, Gary et al (2002) "The Effectiveness of Adjunctive Hypnosis with Surgical Patients: A Meta-Analysis", Anesthesia & Analgesia vol 94, pp.1639-1645

Rainville, Pierre; Hofbauer, Robert K.; Paus, Tomᚠet al (1999) "Cerebral Mechanisms of Hypnotic Induction and Suggestion", Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience vol 11, pp. 110–125

Rainville, Pierre; Hofbauer, Robert K.; Bushnell, M. Catherine et al (2002) "Hypnosis Modulates Activity in Brain Structures Involved in the Regulation of Consciousness", Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience vol 14, pp. 887–901

Raz, Amir; Fan, Jin; Posner, Michael L. (2005) "Hypnotic suggestion reduces conflict in the human brain", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol 102, pp. 9978-9983

Wilson, S.; Maddison, T.; Roberts, L. et al (2006) "Systematic review: the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the management of irritable bowel syndrome", Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics vol 24, pp. 769–780


Davidson, Richard J.; Kabat-Zinn, Jon; Schumacher, Jessica et al (2003) "Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation", Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine vol 65, pp. 564-570

Lutz, Antoine; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Rawlings, Nancy B. et al (2004) "Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol 101, pp. 16369-16373

Lazar, Sara W.; Kerr, Catherine E.; Wasserman, Rachel H. et al (2005) "Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness", NeuroReport vol 16, pp. 1893-1897

Canter, Peter H; Ernst, Edzard (2004) "Insufficient evidence to conclude whether or not Transcendental Meditation decreases blood pressure: results of a systematic review of randomized clinical trials", Journal of Hypertension vol 22, pp. 2049-2054

Arias, Albert J.; Steinberg, Karen; Banga, Alok; Trestman, Robert L. (2006) "Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Meditation Techniques as Treatments for Medical Illness", Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine vol 12, pp. 817-832

Ospina, MB; Bond, TK; Karkhaneh, M et al. (2007) "Meditation Practices for Health: State of the Research", Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 155 (Prepared by the University of Alberta Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-02-0023) AHRQ Publication No.07-E010. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. June 2007

Teasdale, John D; Segal, Zindel V.; Williams, J. Mark G. et al (2000) "Prevention of Relapse/Recurrence in Major Depression by Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy", Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology vol 68, pp.615-623

Ma, S. Helen and Teasdale, John D. (2004) "Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression: Replication and Exploration of Differential Relapse Prevention Effects", Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology vol 72, pp.31-40

Edzard Ernst, Max H. Pittler and Barbara Wider (editors), (2006) "The Desktop Guide to Complementary and Alternative Medicine – An evidence-based approach" 2nd Edition, Mosby

Unpublished and ongoing research

For two of the programmes, the team also drew on some of the latest research which has yet to be published:


Ongoing work investigating the physiological effects of massage being carried out by Professor Mark Rapaport at Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre, Los Angeles, USA

A large trial comparing reflexology with head massage, "Does Reflexology Improve Quality of Life in Women Who Have Undergone Surgery for Early Breast Carcinoma?", carried out by a Professor Leslie Walker et al, Institute of Rehabilitation, University of Hull


Ongoing study by Professor Irving Kirsch, Professor Annelena Venneri and Professor Giuliana Mazzoni of the University of Hull investigating the neural corolates of hypnotic suggestions to see colour and non-hypnotic suggestions to see colour

Ongoing functional magnetic resonance imaging study by Professor Pierre Rainville of the Université De Montréal comparing the neural mechanisms underlying hypnotic analgesia to the neural mechanisms underlying placebo analgesia


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