Diversity and difference in communication
Diversity and difference in communication

This free course is available to start right now. Review the full course description and key learning outcomes and create an account and enrol if you want a free statement of participation.

Free course

Diversity and difference in communication

3.3 Ethnicity

By contrast with ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’ is still widely used to describe differences between groups, although like ‘race’ it is a contested term. The terms ‘ethnic’ and ‘ethnicity’ are commonly used to denote groups of people who share common national or geographical origins, values and beliefs, and customs and traditions. Unlike the notion of ‘race’, ethnicity does not imply innate biological differences but rather similarities derived from belonging to, or being brought up as part of, a specific group (Nazroo, 1997).

As with all terms in this area, there is a need to be wary about how ‘ethnicity’ is used. Sometimes the word ‘ethnic’ is misused to denote ‘otherness’ from the (white British) norm, as in the terms ‘ethnic dress’, ‘ethnic food’ and ‘ethnic music’. This assumes that white people do not have an ethnicity, and constructs ethnicity as pertaining only to minority groups. Often the category ‘white’ is used in the UK context to obscure differences between people from a wide range of ‘ethnic’ groups, such as Irish or Italian. Moreover, the idea of ‘ethnicity’ assumes that everyone can be categorised as belonging to one, fixed grouping, which can then be used to explain their behaviour and needs. But some people are of dual or mixed heritage and do not fit neatly into the categories offered, thus calling into question the whole process. How should you define your ethnicity if one of your parents is African–Caribbean and the other white, for example, or if (like the British fomer Labour MP Oona King) you are both black and Jewish?

Figure 6.2
Is ethnic identity a useful concept in thinking about people’s interactions in care settings?

In Activity 3 you reflected on your own identity. How easy or difficult was it to define your ethnicity? How important was your ethnicity to you? The next activity is an opportunity to focus specifically on your ethnic identity.


For further information, take a look at our frequently asked questions which may give you the support you need.

Have a question?
Free Courses

OpenLearn has over 800 free courses across all our subjects designed by our academic experts. From 1 to 100 hours, introductory to advanced, you can start learning at any time and all for free.