The Open University since 2006
Alternatively you can skip the navigation by pressing 'Enter'.
Frozen Planet: AutumnTuesday, 24th May 2016 09:00 - EdenTime is running out for the creatures at the Poles Read more: Frozen Planet: Autumn
Thinking Allowed 2016: Glasgow gangs - Russian gangsAvailable for over a yearLaurie Taylor and guests look at what drives Glasgow and Russian gangs and how they find their place in their... Read more: Thinking Allowed 2016: Glasgow gangs - Russian gangs
Shakespeare Speaks: Cruel to be kindAvailable until Monday, 20th June 2016 00:00
Old School With The Hairy Bikers: EPISODE 2Available until Saturday, 18th June 2016 19:30
Life - with David AttenboroughDavid Attenborough explores the vibrant mix of life found on our plant - where it comes from, and... Read more: Life - with David Attenborough
The UK's EU Referendum - In or Out?What is the UK's EU Referendum? What will it mean if we are 'in' or 'out'? Learn more about trade... Read more: The UK's EU Referendum - In or Out?
Constitutions in transitionThis free course, Constitutions in transition, explores and compares the development of four... Try: Constitutions in transition now
Introduction to bookkeeping and accountingLearn about the essential numerical skills required for accounting and bookkeeping. This free... Try: Introduction to bookkeeping and accounting now
Have you always wanted to try to write poetry but never quite managed to start? This free course, What is poetry?, is designed to illustrate the techniques behind both the traditional forms of poetry and free verse. You will learn how you can use your own experiences to develop ideas and how to harness your imagination.
After studying this course, you should be able to:
- understand the common techniques underlying free verse and traditional forms of poetry
- identify personal experiences that can be used when writing poems
- understand the basic terminology and practical elements of poetry.
- Learning outcomes
- 1 What is poetry?: an introduction
- 2 Forming the form
- 3 What is poetry?
- 4 Impersonation and imagination
- 5 Poetic techniques
- 6 Rhyme
- 7 Other rhyming techniques
- 8 Stress and rhythm
- 9 Metre
- 10 Hold that space!
- Keep on learning
Study this free course
Enrol to access the full course, get recognition for the skills you learn, track your progress and on completion gain a statement of participation to demonstrate your learning to others. Make your learning visible!
5.3 Stanzas and verse
The poem ‘The literal and the metaphor’, which you read in Section 5.1, was divided into two sections. We call these verses or stanzas, and they are the poetic equivalent of paragraphs, but with more shape, weight and focus than the prose equivalent. Stanzas are like islands encircled by shores. Or, since we have been talking about houses, let's use another image for these stanzas. James Fenton tells us that ‘The Italian word stanza means a room’ (Fenton, 2002, p. 61).
So, how many rooms should a poem have? Well, it depends. A stanza concentrates attention on a particular area of thought or image. The reasons for dividing a poem into stanzas or verses may vary from poem to poem, and might develop from the reasons for the line-breaks that we introduce, with the stanzas or rooms constituting the macro-structure of the poem and its larger purpose.
Line-breaks and stanzas, accentuated by punctuation, can be used to establish a pace, to push the poem onwards and develop the theme. The pattern they form contributes to the total effect of the poem.
Now take your ‘instant poem’ from Activity 11 in Section 5.2, and divide it into stanzas. You may change your mind about line-breaks now, and you may also add or take away words, if this helps. This time you may want to repeat another line or a word.
Can you locate a meaningful transition between the first and second stanzas, or the second and third?
A stanza can be as long or as short as you'd like, but make the length of the stanza appropriate to what's contained within.
Try to free yourself from expectations about how it ‘should’ go. Instead, experiment, and see what ideas arise from the structure itself.
Articulate why you chose a particular point to break the stanza. Or why you rejected a different structure. Perhaps the poem works best as one stanza. The poem's central element may reside in a single idea or image, as with the following:
Fan-piece, for her Imperial Lord
O fan of white silk,
clear as frost on the glass-blade,
You also are laid aside.
Great emotion is wrapped inside the formal diction of this poem. We may surmise that the fan was given by the Imperial Lord to an ex-mistress, now cast aside. Even a short poem can evoke a whole scenario, without being explicit. We should file away this idea – that less can be more.
This is how far we have got with the building of our poetic house.
The house that Jack or Jill might build
We know that poems
are made of lines
and lines need line-
which we've already discussed.
These lines can, in turn, then be grouped together or divided in creative
or unequal sections
- poetic paragraphs called stanzas or verses …
The next aspect to consider in more detail is the fact that stanzas may be composed of varying numbers of lines, and there are names for different kinds of stanzas. This one is a couplet:
In couplets, one line often makes a point
Which hinges on its bending, like a joint.
Read the following poem and consider the way the form – the use of couplets – is connected to the content.
Once they know I'm beauty's twin
at the party door, I'm in,
if only so they can compare
roses to hips hardened by winter air.
Nine months perfectly in tune
with the sharer of our mother's womb –
you'd think that beauty's shadow would earn
one brief victorious public turn.
In Sparta, I'd be second-rate,
without a date,
and if in my part of Athens
nothing much happens
(even the migrating birds
like euphemistic words
or an air-blown lover's kiss
– false and paltry – give this part of town a miss)
still, I'm a big fish in a tiny pond,
twin to a natural blonde
but at least a reference for men's desire,
the heat of the missing fire.
While our strong and handsome brothers
wrestle with each other
on top of Ulysses’ mast
(male ego, vanity and brass!)
it's Helen's Fire completes the sum,
for she's the portent of the worst to come.
She's the corposant which starts
the charge between all lovers’ parts.
If beauty's an affliction,
then men and women love addiction.
Here, the evening creeps
across the place where my lovers sleep
then rise to leave me instead
once daylight steals the Helen that I'd had them bed.
When it comes to beauty, the world knows best
and the Trojan war's the test.
Any woman would slay a thousand soldiers
not to get older.
* In classical mythology, Castor and Pollux were the twin sons of Jupiter and Leda, just as Helen of Troy is the daughter of Zeus and Leda in Greek legend. Castor and Pollux were also the names given by Roman sailors to St Elmo's Fire, or the corposant phenomenon, when the flame effect on the mast of a ship appeared double. This indicated that the worst of the storm was over. A single flame, called Helen's Fire, signified that the worst of the storm was yet to come.
‘Helen's sister’ is comprised of rhyming couplets. In it, Helen of Troy's sister finally gets the opportunity to present her version of events. As a sideshow to history and myth, the speaker offers a different perspective on beauty and gender – on the events themselves and how they are usually presented. The couplet form is appropriate to the theme of two sisters.
Now choose a person from history or mythology and write a few couplets in that person's voice. Feel free to rhyme, but at this point pay more attention to your ideas, as laid out in two-line patterns. Don't worry about the ‘missing’ poem, or a more complete poem that might have been. Frequently writers scrawl notes without necessarily having yet composed the poem in which they belong. In fact, they may not use certain lines as originally intended at all. The most important thing here is to work in couplets.
This person may be a politician, movie star, explorer, etc. Perhaps they are famous, or perhaps they are simply associated with the famous person. For example, they might be a queen's handmaiden rather than the queen herself. You could jot down a list of several people, and come back to it later to try out other characters.
Were all your couplets self-contained, or did some run over into the next couplet? Try to vary the lines, so they don't all start with ‘I’ or ‘She’. Did yours rhyme? If they did, try to write another version that doesn't rhyme. If they didn't, try to write some couplets that do. Notice that in ‘Helen's sister’ some of the rhymes are not exact – e.g. mast/brass; soldiers/older. This near rhyme is more common in modern verse methods.
This free course includes adapted extracts from an Open University course which is no longer available to new students. If you found this interesting you could explore more free Literature courses or view the range of currently available OU Literature courses.
Copyright & revisions
Originally published: Wednesday, 27th January 2016
Last updated on: Wednesday, 27th January 2016
- Creative-Commons: The Open University is proud to release this free course under a Creative Commons licence. However, any third-party materials featured within it are used with permission and are not ours to give away. These materials are not subject to the Creative Commons licence. See terms and conditions. Full details can be found in the Acknowledgements and our FAQs section.
- This site has Copy Reuse Tracking enabled - see our FAQs for more information.
If you enjoyed this, why not follow a feed to find out when we have new things like it? Choose an RSS feed from the list below. (Don't know what to do with RSS feeds?)
Remember, you can also make your own, personal feed by combining tags from around OpenLearn.
All our alternative formats are free for you to download, for more information about the different formats we offer please see our FAQs. The most frequently used are Word (for accessibility), PDF (for print) and ePub and Kindle to download to eReaders*.
- Word (858 KB)
- PDF (1.6 MB)
- ePub 3.0 (3.7 MB)
- ePub 2.0 (613 KB)
- Kindle (318 KB)
- RSS (276 KB)
- HTML (3.8 MB)
- SCORM (3.8 MB)
- OUXML Package (38 KB)
- OUXML File (113 KB)
- IMS Common cartridge
- Moodle backup (4.7 MB)
*Please note you will need an ePub and Mobi reader for these formats.