from The Open University
Alternatively you can skip the navigation by pressing 'Enter'.
The Hunt: Episode 4: Hunger at SeaSunday, 29th November 2015 16:50 - BBC OneHow do predators find prey in the open ocean - a vast watery desert where food is scarce and widespread? Blue whales,... Read more: The Hunt: Episode 4: Hunger at Sea
Ireland with Simon Reeve: Episode 2Sunday, 29th November 2015 20:00 - BBC Two
Power to the People: Episode 3: The Customer is Always RightTuesday, 1st December 2015 21:00 - BBC Four
Power to the People: Episode 3: The Customer is Always RightWednesday, 2nd December 2015 02:25 - BBC Four
The Hunt: Episode 4: Hunger at SeaAvailable until Tuesday, 29th December 2015 17:50How do predators find prey in the open ocean - a vast watery desert where food is scarce and widespread? Blue whales,... Read more: The Hunt: Episode 4: Hunger at Sea
Catching History's Criminals: The Forensics Story: Traces Of GuiltAvailable until Tuesday, 29th December 2015 00:00
BBC Inside Science: Astronomy Q&A, CERN and ancient genomesAvailable for over a year
All in the Mind: Mindfulness, porn addiction and slothfulnessAvailable for over a year
Star Wars VII: Myth and fairy taleWhat storytelling styles and genres can be applied to Star Wars. Sarah Haslam investigates... Read more: Star Wars VII: Myth and fairy tale
The HuntNew ground-breaking OU/BBC natural history series The Hunt, narrated by Sir David... Read more: The Hunt
Can renewable energy power the world?Renewable energy sources are gaining an increasing share of world energy supplies. In the next... Try: Can renewable energy power the world? now
English: skills for learningThis course is for anybody who is thinking of studying for a university degree and would like to... Try: English: skills for learning now
- You are here:
- History & The Arts
- Voice-leading analysis of music 2: the middleground
- 5.1 Interruption as a structural device
Voice-leading analysis of music 2: the middleground
This unit continues our examination of ‘voice-leading’ or ‘Schenkerian’ analysis,...
This unit continues our examination of ‘voice-leading’ or ‘Schenkerian’ analysis, perhaps the most widely-used and discussed method of analysing tonal music. In this unit, this method is explained through the analysis of piano sonatas by Mozart. The unit is the second in the AA314 series of three units on this form of harmonic analysis, and concentrates on the ‘middleground level’ of voice leading. As you work through this unit, you will become familiar with the deeper levels of harmony in Mozart’s piano sonatas.
By the end of this free course you should:
- have a deeper understanding of the complete movements from Mozart's sonatas, studied both here and in AA314_1 and an acquaintance with extracts from others of the piano sonatas;
- recognise typical techniques used by Mozart to organise the harmony of complete short sections within musical works;
- understand the use of symbols in voice-leading graphs of the middleground of harmonic structure;
- be able to relate this sort of graph to the score of the music it analyses.
- Learning outcomes
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Melodies within melodies
- 3 Unfolding
- 4 Self-contained musical structures
- 5 Interruption
- Current section: 5.1 Interruption as a structural device
- 5.2 Identifying an interrupted structure
- 5.3 Interrupted structure and typical features of the style
- 5.4 Different analyses of a single theme
- 5.5 Interruption: a summary
- Current section:
- 6 Towards a deeper level of structure
Study this free course
Enrol to access the full course, get recognition for the skills you learn and track your progress. Make your learning visible!
5.1 Interruption as a structural device
Now that we have seen how a middleground linear descent can organise the structure of a whole phrase, the next main topic of this unit is to consider cases where this descent stops short of reaching the tonic note. This is called an interrupted structure. While the following examples are quite short and relatively simple, the principle of interruption has a far-reaching influence which can affect the overall form of entire movements, particularly those in sonata form.
We are going to look at three case studies of ‘interrupted form’, one from a sonata you have already done a lot of work with, and two from sonatas new to this unit. You may find it helpful to make your own attempt at an analytical graph of each extract before looking at mine; but in each case the most important aim is to hear the main shapes and patterns shown in my graphs.
I recommend that you listen to each of the recordings several times as you work through the three case studies. To begin with, I will give quite a lot of detailed discussion of the graphs in order to explain my analytical decisions, but as we proceed I hope that you will find them increasingly self-explanatory.
This is an extract from an Open University course which is no longer available to new students. If you found this interesting you could explore more free Music courses or view the range of currently available OU Music courses.
Copyright & revisions
Originally published: Tuesday, 11th March 2014
Last updated on: Tuesday, 11th March 2014
- Creative-Commons: The Open University is proud to release this free course under a Creative Commons licence. However, any third-party materials featured within it are used with permission and are not ours to give away. These materials are not subject to the Creative Commons licence. See terms and conditions. Full details can be found in the Acknowledgements section.
- This site has Copy Reuse Tracking enabled - see our FAQs for more information.
If you enjoyed this, why not follow a feed to find out when we have new things like it? Choose an RSS feed from the list below. (Don't know what to do with RSS feeds?)
Remember, you can also make your own, personal feed by combining tags from around OpenLearn.