Cànan nan Gàidheal
Cànan nan Gàidheal

This free course is available to start right now. Review the full course description and key learning outcomes and create an account and enrol if you want a free statement of participation.

Free course

Cànan nan Gàidheal

4.1.1 Buaidh air an neach-labhairt

Suas chun nan 1960an, bha a’ chuid mhòr den rannsachadh air buaidh dà-chànanas air comas-eanchainn chloinne stèidhte air sluagh a bha air in-imrich a dhèanamh dha na Stàitean Aonaichte, a’ mhòr-chuid dhiubh à Ameireaga a Deas, agus b’ e an co-dhùnadh mar as trice nach robh a’ chlann dà-chànanach a’ dèanamh cho math ann an deuchainnean comais ri clann aig nach robh ach aon chànan. Chan eil duine a’ cur earbsa san rannsachadh seo a-nise, ge-tà, air grunn adhbhair ach gu h-àraidh airson gun robh iad a’ coimeas chloinne à dachaighean a bha glè eadar-dhealaichte a thaobh cosnaidh, ionmhais agus rudan mar ìre foghlaim nam pàrantan.

Chaidh pròiseact rannsachaidh mòr a dhèanamh ann am Montreal ann an 1962 a chuir ceist anns na co-dhùnaidhean seo airson a’ chiad uair. Rinn na h-eòlaichean-cànain Ealasaid Peal agus Wallace Lambert coimeas eadar comas ‘dà-chànanaich chothromach’ – i.e., clann a bha a’ cheart cho fileanta ann am Fraingis agus Beurla – agus clann aig nach robh ach aon chànan. Rinn na dà-chànanaich nas fheàrr sa chuid mhòr de na deuchainnean comais aca agus cho-dhùin Peal agus Lambert on seo: ‘A bilingual child is a youngster whose experience with two language systems seems to have left him with a mental flexibility, a superiority in concept formation, a more diversified set of mental abilities.’

Ged a tha fhios againn a-nise gun robh laigsean ann an rannsachadh Peal/Lambert cuideachd, lean mòran de na h-eòlaichean a thàinig às an dèidh an aon slighe, a’ co-dhùnadh mar as trice gu bheil ceangal làidir eadar dà-chànanas agus comas-eanchainn chloinne.

Tha luchd-rannsachaidh a-nise a’ feuchainn ri dealbh nas mionaidiche a thoirt air a’ cheangal seo. Tha cuid a’ coimhead air na cànanan fhèin, mar eisimpleir air dè cho fileanta is a tha na dà-chànanaich annta. Tha aon eòlaiche air co-dhùnadh gu bheil ìre àraidh ann – ‘stairseach’ – a dh’fheumar a ruighinn anns gach cànan mus eil a’ bhuaidh mhath seo aig dà-chànanas air comas-eanchainn. Tha cuid eile air coimhead air an inbhe a tha aig gach cànan, a’ co-dhùnadh: ‘Where the home language is that of the majority, ‘additive’ bilingualism is best promoted by providing initial instruction in the second language’ (mar a tha a’ tachairt ann am foghlam tro mheadhan na Gàidhlig).

Tha cuid a luchd-rannsachaidh air feuchainn ri dearbhadh dè na dearbh chomasan inntinn air a bheil dà-chànanas a’ toirt buaidh. Mar eisimpleir, tha Ellen Bialystok à Oilthigh York, Toronto, air sealltainn gu bheil clann dhà-chànanach nas fheàrr air dèanamh grunn rudan aig an aon àm agus air an cur an òrdugh agus tha i a’ co-dhùnadh on seo gu bheil a bhith a’ cumail rian air dà chànan a’ neartachadh ‘siostam smachd na h-eanchainne’. Ged a tha a’ mhòr-chuid de obair Bialystok mu chlann, dh’fhoillsich i pàipear sa Ghearran 2011 a tha a’ co-dhùnadh gu bheil a bhith a’ cleachdadh dà chànan a’ cur maill air call na cuimhne ann an seann daoine, air an aon adhbhar. Gheibhear cunntas-naidheachd an seo [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] .

Figear 25 Ellen Bialystok

An co-dhùnadh, ged a tha ceistean rim fuasgladh fhathast mun cheangal eadar dà-chànanas agus comas-eanchainn, tha barrachd is barrachd aonta ann mun seo, mar a tha Anne Brasier à Oilthigh Kagoshima (Iapan) a’ mìneachadh ann an The relationship between bilingualism and the cognitive development of bilingual children (1999): ‘Research has overwhelmingly concluded that bilingualism per se does not have any negative effects on cognition. In fact the opposite increasingly appears to be the case: that high levels of bilingualism have accelerating effects on children’s cognitive development.’

Gaidhlig_1

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has over 40 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to university level study, find out more about the types of qualifications we offer, including our entry level Access courses and Certificates.

Not ready for University study then browse over 900 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus