Cànan nan Gàidheal
Cànan nan Gàidheal

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Cànan nan Gàidheal

Notaichean

  1. Na leabhar ainmeil, The History of the Celtic Place-Names of Scotland, sgrìobh am Proifeasair MacBhàtair: ‘Malcolm, son of Kenneth, routed the Northumbrians in the great and decisive battle of Carham in AD 1018, and fixed the boundary of Scotland practically as it stands now... It was during this period, probably from about AD 960 onwards, that Gaelic came to be current in Lothian; there is some evidence that it extended beyond the present boundary of Scotland.’
  2. Bidh sliochd nan Albannach air feadh an t-saoghail gu tric a’ fuaimneachadh a’ chinnidh Menzies mar ‘MEN-zeez’ agus tha iongnadh orra nuair a chluinneas iad am fuaimneachadh ann an Alba fhèin, ‘MING-iss’. Tha e coltach gun tàinig tùsairean a’ chinnidh à Mesnieres ann an Normandaidh. ’S e de Meyneris a bh’ orra ann am Beurla, a’ leantainn na dòigh Normanaich, agus Mèinnearach ann an Gàidhlig (mar an ceudna, ‘s de Brus a bh’ air Bruce ann am Beurla agus Brus ann an Gàidhlig). Cha robh an ‘z’ ann am Menzies na ‘z’ bho thùs idir, ach litir ris an canar ‘yogh’ a bh’ ann an seann aibidilean na h-Albais is na Beurla Mheadhanaich; bha i air a sgrìobhadh mar ‘ȝ’ ach air a fuaimneachadh mar ‘y’. Gu minic, cha robh yogh ri fhaighinn don fheadhainn a bha a’ cur sgrìobhadh ann an clò agus chuireadh iad ‘z’ na àite (an litir a b’ fhaisge ann an cumadh), a’ toirt atharrachadh air fuaimneachadh an ainm ann am Beurla. Ach cha deach atharrachadh a thoirt air a’ Ghàidhlig – ’s e Mèinnearach a chanar fhathast. Tha cur-a-steach an ‘z’ an àite yogh air fuaimneachaidhean eile de dh’fhaclan Albais stèidhichte air feadhainn Ghàidhlig atharrachadh a bharrachd, leithid capercailzie (capall coille), MacKenzie (MacCoinnich) agus Cockenzie (Cùil Choinnich).
  3. Bha Achd na Comhairle Dhìomhair anns an Dùbhlachd 1616 mar a leanas: Forsameikle as the Kingis Majestie having a speciall care and regaird that the trew religioun be advancit and establisheit in all the pairtis of this kingdome and that all his Majesties subjectis especiallie the youth, be exercised and trayned up in civilitie, godliness, knawledge, and learning, that the vulgar Inglishe toung be universallie plantit, and the Irische language, whilk is one of the cheif and principall causes of the continewance of barbarite and incivilitie amongis the inhabitantis of the Ilis and Heylandis, may be abolishit and removeit; and quhair as thair is no measure more powerfull to further his Majesties princlie regaird and purpois that the establisheing of Scooles in the particular parroches of this Kingdom whair the youthe may be taught at least to write and reid, and be catechised and instructed in the groundis of religioun.
  4. Sgrìobh a’ bhuidheann: ‘Nothing can be more effectual for reducing these Countries to order and making them usefull to the Commonwealth, than teaching them their duty to God, their King and Countrey, and rooting out their Irish language, and this has been the care of the Society so far as it could, for all the Schollars are taught in English.’
  5. ’S e amas Achd na Gàidhlig [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] (Alba) 2005 inbhe is follaiseachd na Gàidhlig a thoirt am feabhas ann am buidhnean a thig fo ùghdarras Pàrlamaid na h-Alba. Chaidh am Bile airson na h-Achd tron Phàrlamaid air 21 Giblean 2005 agus fhuair i Cead Rìoghail air 1 Ògmhios 2005. Seo mar a thòisicheas i: An Act of the Scottish Parliament to establish a body having functions exercisable with a view to securing the status of the Gaelic language as an official language of Scotland commanding equal respect to the English language, including the functions of preparing a national Gaelic language plan, of requiring certain public authorities to prepare and publish Gaelic language plans in connection with the exercise of their functions and to maintain and implement such plans, and of issuing guidance in relation to Gaelic education.
  6. Tha cuid de sgoilearan dhen bheachd gun tàinig an cànan tùsail P-Ceilteach gu bith (le p- a’ gabhail àite qu-) ann am meadhan na Roinn Eòrpa anns a’ chiad mhìle bliadhna RC ach nach do ràinig e Èirinn no na sgìrean Ceilteach anns an Rubha Ibìrianach a dh’fhuirich Q-Ceilteach. Mar sin, tha an sgaradh eadar an dà mheur de na cànanan Ceilteach air a bhith ann fad ùine mhòr.
  7. Gheibhear fiosrachadh inntinneach mun Chuimris ann an Argentina ann an Ó Néill, Diarmuid (deas.) Rebuilding the Celtic Languages: Reversing Language Shift in the Celtic Countries Y Lolfa 2005.
  8. ’S e a bhith sgaradh cultar o a dhualchas lèirsinneach dòigh a tha air a chleachdadh uaireannan gus dìmeas a dhèanamh air cultar. Mar eisimpleir, dh’fheuch luchd-riaghlaidh nan Innseachan san 19amh linn ri dhearbhadh nach robh ann an ealan nan Innseachan ach copaidh de ealan na Grèige agus mar sin nach robh e ro luachmhor, anns an dòigh seo a’ dèanamh tàire air a’ chultar.
  9. Mar eisimpleir, chlàr Gibb, ann an Leabhar a Dhà de Sculptured Stones of Scotland aig John Stuart 1867, obair mar an Kildalton Cross ann an Ìle agus Crois an Naoimh Màrtainn ann an Eilean Ì. Bha Sculptured Monuments of Iona and the West Highlands aig Drummond, a chaidh fhoillseachadh ann an 1881, cudromach leis gun do tharraing e aire chun na stoidhle snaidheadaireachd seo a bha an impis a dhol à cuimhne.
  10. Faic Macdonald, M., 2008, ‘The Visual Dimension of Carmina Gadelica’ ann an Stiubhart, D. U., deas., The Life and Legacy of Alexander Carmichael, Port of Ness: The Islands Book Trust.
  11. Dwelly, E., 1902-1911, Faclair Gàidhlig – air son nan sgoiltean. Le Dealbhan / A Gaelic Dictionary – specially designed for beginners and for use in schools. Profusely illustrated, Herne Bay: The Gaelic Press. Tha an ‘F’ aig ‘Faclair’ stèidhte air an ‘F’ aig ‘Failt’ air duilleag 108 den chiad leabhar de Carmina Gadelica.
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