from The Open University
Alternatively you can skip the navigation by pressing 'Enter'.
The world’s busiest railway 2015 – Mumbai Railway: Episode 4Saturday, 3rd October 2015 16:55 - BBC TwoThis final episode considers the challenges faced by the historic Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus - and asks what the... Read more: The world’s busiest railway 2015 – Mumbai Railway: Episode 4
The Bottom Line: Autumn 2015: Art and the Business of TasteSaturday, 3rd October 2015 17:30 - BBC Radio 4
The Great British Year: WinterMonday, 5th October 2015 21:00 - BBC Four
Canals: The Making of a Nation: HeritageTuesday, 6th October 2015 20:00 - BBC Four
The Bottom Line: Autumn 2015: Art and the Business of TasteAvailable for over a yearHow do you value something like a painting? What makes one artist worth more than another? Who decides what is in... Read more: The Bottom Line: Autumn 2015: Art and the Business of Taste
BBC Inside Science: Preserving global diversity: Kew specialAvailable for over a year
Countdown To Life: The Extraordinary Making Of You: The Final PushAvailable until Saturday, 31st October 2015 00:15
The ascent of woman: PowerAvailable until Friday, 30th October 2015 02:30
Who will lead Britain out of the European UnionPerhaps it's not surprising that campaigners against the European Union don't want to work... Read more: Who will lead Britain out of the European Union
OpenLearn Live: 2nd October 2015Two mathematicians who threw shapes, Brexit, canals -a collection of free learning through... Read more: OpenLearn Live: 2nd October 2015
Learning to teachThis free course, which comprises four study units, is aimed at people who are considering... Try: Learning to teach now
English: skills for learningThis course is for anybody who is thinking of studying for a university degree and would like to... Try: English: skills for learning now
Never before have social issues been more at the centre of public and private debate....
Never before have social issues been more at the centre of public and private debate. From concerns about sustainability and the future of the planet to the introduction of smoking bans, there is a growing recognition that social marketing has a role to play in achieving a wide range of social goals.
By the end of this unit you should be able to:
- describe and explain the meaning and nature of social marketing;
- analyse social marketing problems and suggest ways of solving these;
- recognise the range of stakeholders involved in social marketing programmes and their role as target markets;
- assess the role of branding, social advertising and other communications in achieving behavioural change.
- Learning outcomes
- 1 Unit overview
- 2 Understanding the nature of social marketing
- 3 Understanding consumer behaviour
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 The factors which influence consumer behaviour
- 3.3 The importance of understanding motivation
- 3.4 The importance of understanding attitudes
- Current section: The theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour
- Current section:
- 3.5 Consumer behaviour models
- 4 Stakeholders and target markets
- 5 The role of communications and branding in social marketing programmes
- 6 Unit questions
- 7 Conclusion
Study this free course
Enrol to access the full course, get recognition for the skills you learn and track your progress. Make your learning visible!
The theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour
The extended Fishbein model, based on the theory of reasoned action, includes the following components to explain behaviour.
Attitude to the behaviour comprising:
a. The strength of the expectancy (beliefs) that the act will be followed by a consequence.
b. The value of that consequence to the individual.
This is the basic expectancy value approach. Returning to our previous smoking cessation example, if we expect that stopping smoking will result in health, wealth and happiness – and this is important to us – then we will develop a positive affect towards the behaviour of stopping smoking. There is, however, another dimension.
Subjective norms (i.e. the socio-cultural norms of other persons, groups or society) and the individuals' desire/motivation to conform to these norms. Consequently, peer group and other pressures may reduce or enhance our attitudes towards stopping smoking. Ajzen (1985) later included:
Perceived control (i.e. situational or internal obstacles to performing the behaviour). This addition has resulted in a new model – ‘the theory of planned behaviour’. Consequently, the power of addiction may impact on our attitudes and prevent us from trying to stop smoking.
A key question, for both commercial and social marketers, is: Why do actual behaviour and reported intentions often differ?
As discussed earlier, the purpose of social marketing is to effect behaviour change. Attitude models often record behavioural intentions rather than actual behaviour. One of the purposes of research is to assess how people will behave in the future, for example in response to new stimuli such as additional resources – help lines, clinics, etc. One of the problems, however, is that reported behavioural intentions often don't match up to actual behaviour.
List the reasons why you think that what people say they will do in answer to research questions is often very different to what they actually do.
There are many reasons. These may include:
Reasons due to the research process, e.g. telling the researcher what they want to know out of politeness.
Reasons due to the individual's wish to show themselves to be rational or a ‘good citizen’. They might, therefore, overstate intentions to reduce environmental emissions and understate intentions to use private transport.
They may genuinely intend to engage in the behaviour but situational factors intervene, e.g. they may not have the time to travel by public transport or there may be a bus strike.
Copyright & revisions
Originally published: Wednesday, 6th July 2011
- Creative-Commons: The Open University is proud to release this free course under a Creative Commons licence. However, any third-party materials featured within it are used with permission and are not ours to give away. These materials are not subject to the Creative Commons licence. See terms and conditions. Full details can be found in the Acknowledgements section.
- This site has Copy Reuse Tracking enabled - see our FAQs for more information.
If you enjoyed this, why not follow a feed to find out when we have new things like it? Choose an RSS feed from the list below. (Don't know what to do with RSS feeds?)
Remember, you can also make your own, personal feed by combining tags from around OpenLearn.