The Open University since 2006
Alternatively you can skip the navigation by pressing 'Enter'.
Life Story: ParenthoodFriday, 30th September 2016 00:00 - BBC FourSome parents are more closely involved than others. Read more: Life Story: Parenthood
Life Story: ParenthoodAvailable until Sunday, 30th October 2016 01:00Some parents are more closely involved than others. Read more: Life Story: Parenthood
The Bottom Line: Autumn 2016: TheresanomicsAvailable for over a year
BBC Inside Science - 2016/2017 series: Rosetta's comet touchdown finaleAvailable for over a year
Scotland and The Battle for Britain: Episode 1Available until Friday, 28th October 2016 03:05
The Bottom Line: Autumn 2016Evan Davis hosts the business conversation show with people at the top giving insight into what... Read more: The Bottom Line: Autumn 2016
Free courses for teachers and student teachersThe links below provide access to a series of free, short Open University courses aimed at... Read more: Free courses for teachers and student teachers
Digital literacy: succeeding in a digital worldThis free course, Digital literacy: succeeding in a digital world, will develop your confidence... Try: Digital literacy: succeeding in a digital world now
Organisations and management accountingThis free course, Organisations and management accounting, examines the nature of organisations,... Try: Organisations and management accounting now
Never before have social issues been more at the centre of public and private debate. From concerns about sustainability and the future of the planet to the introduction of smoking bans, there is a growing recognition that social marketing has a role to play in achieving a wide range of social goals. This free course, Social marketing, examines the nature of social marketing and how the adoption of marketing concepts, frameworks and techniques developed for commercial marketers can be applied to the solution of social problems.
After studying this course, you should be able to:
- describe and explain the meaning and nature of social marketing
- analyse social marketing problems and suggest ways of solving these
- recognise the range of stakeholders involved in social marketing programmes and their role as target markets
- assess the role of branding, social advertising and other communications in achieving behavioural change.
- Learning outcomes
- 1 Course overview
- 2 Understanding the nature of social marketing
- 3 Understanding consumer behaviour
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 The factors which influence consumer behaviour
- 3.3 The importance of understanding motivation
- 3.4 The importance of understanding attitudes
- Current section: The theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour
- Current section:
- 3.5 Consumer behaviour models
- 4 Stakeholders and target markets
- 5 The role of communications and branding in social marketing programmes
- 6 Course questions
- 7 Conclusion
- Keep on learning
Study this free course
Enrol to access the full course, get recognition for the skills you learn, track your progress and on completion gain a statement of participation to demonstrate your learning to others. Make your learning visible!
The theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour
The extended Fishbein model, based on the theory of reasoned action, includes the following components to explain behaviour.
Attitude to the behaviour comprising:
a. The strength of the expectancy (beliefs) that the act will be followed by a consequence.
b. The value of that consequence to the individual.
This is the basic expectancy value approach. Returning to our previous smoking cessation example, if we expect that stopping smoking will result in health, wealth and happiness – and this is important to us – then we will develop a positive affect towards the behaviour of stopping smoking. There is, however, another dimension.
Subjective norms (i.e. the socio-cultural norms of other persons, groups or society) and the individuals' desire/motivation to conform to these norms. Consequently, peer group and other pressures may reduce or enhance our attitudes towards stopping smoking. Ajzen (1985) later included:
Perceived control (i.e. situational or internal obstacles to performing the behaviour). This addition has resulted in a new model – ‘the theory of planned behaviour’. Consequently, the power of addiction may impact on our attitudes and prevent us from trying to stop smoking.
A key question, for both commercial and social marketers, is: Why do actual behaviour and reported intentions often differ?
As discussed earlier, the purpose of social marketing is to effect behaviour change. Attitude models often record behavioural intentions rather than actual behaviour. One of the purposes of research is to assess how people will behave in the future, for example in response to new stimuli such as additional resources – help lines, clinics, etc. One of the problems, however, is that reported behavioural intentions often don't match up to actual behaviour.
List the reasons why you think that what people say they will do in answer to research questions is often very different to what they actually do.
There are many reasons. These may include:
Reasons due to the research process, e.g. telling the researcher what they want to know out of politeness.
Reasons due to the individual's wish to show themselves to be rational or a ‘good citizen’. They might, therefore, overstate intentions to reduce environmental emissions and understate intentions to use private transport.
They may genuinely intend to engage in the behaviour but situational factors intervene, e.g. they may not have the time to travel by public transport or there may be a bus strike.
Copyright & revisions
Originally published: Wednesday, 6th July 2011
Last updated on: Thursday, 11th February 2016
- Creative-Commons: The Open University is proud to release this free course under a Creative Commons licence. However, any third-party materials featured within it are used with permission and are not ours to give away. These materials are not subject to the Creative Commons licence. See terms and conditions. Full details can be found in the Acknowledgements and our FAQs section.
- This site has Copy Reuse Tracking enabled - see our FAQs for more information.
If you enjoyed this, why not follow a feed to find out when we have new things like it? Choose an RSS feed from the list below. (Don't know what to do with RSS feeds?)
Remember, you can also make your own, personal feed by combining tags from around OpenLearn.
All our alternative formats are free for you to download, for more information about the different formats we offer please see our FAQs. The most frequently used are Word (for accessibility), PDF (for print) and ePub and Kindle to download to eReaders*.
- Word (1.5 MB)
- PDF (2.4 MB)
- ePub 3.0 (1.2 MB)
- ePub 2.0 (1.2 MB)
- Kindle (510 KB)
- RSS (191 KB)
- HTML (1.3 MB)
- SCORM (1.3 MB)
- OUXML Package (25 KB)
- OUXML File (82 KB)
- IMS Common cartridge
- Moodle backup (2.9 MB)
*Please note you will need an ePub and Mobi reader for these formats.