from The Open University
Alternatively you can skip the navigation by pressing 'Enter'.
Catching History's Criminals: The Forensics Story: Traces Of GuiltSaturday, 28th November 2015 23:00 - BBC FourAs Gabriel Weston discovers: every contact leaves a trace... Read more: Catching History's Criminals: The Forensics Story: Traces Of Guilt
The Hunt: Episode 4: Hunger at SeaSunday, 29th November 2015 16:50 - BBC One
Ireland with Simon Reeve: Episode 2Sunday, 29th November 2015 20:00 - BBC Two
Power to the People: Episode 3: The Customer is Always RightTuesday, 1st December 2015 21:00 - BBC Four
Catching History's Criminals: The Forensics Story: Traces Of GuiltAvailable until Tuesday, 29th December 2015 00:00As Gabriel Weston discovers: every contact leaves a trace... Read more: Catching History's Criminals: The Forensics Story: Traces Of Guilt
BBC Inside Science: Astronomy Q&A, CERN and ancient genomesAvailable for over a year
All in the Mind: Mindfulness, porn addiction and slothfulnessAvailable for over a year
Power to the People: Episode 2: It's Not Easy Being GreenAvailable until Friday, 25th December 2015 04:00
Star Wars VII: Myth and fairy taleWhat storytelling styles and genres can be applied to Star Wars. Sarah Haslam investigates... Read more: Star Wars VII: Myth and fairy tale
OpenLearn Live: 27th November 2015The oldest parish in Ireland - then more free learning through the day. Read more: OpenLearn Live: 27th November 2015
Can renewable energy power the world?Renewable energy sources are gaining an increasing share of world energy supplies. In the next... Try: Can renewable energy power the world? now
English: skills for learningThis course is for anybody who is thinking of studying for a university degree and would like to... Try: English: skills for learning now
Animals at the extremes: Hibernation and torpor
Hibernation is an ingenious adaptation that some animals employ to survive difficult...
Hibernation is an ingenious adaptation that some animals employ to survive difficult conditions in winter. This unit examines the differences between hibernation and torpor, and discusses the characteristic signs of hibernation behaviour. It explores the triggers that bring on hibernation, and whether internal signals or external season cues are predominant. It also examines the physiological adaptations that occur in hibernating animals. This unit builds on and develops ideas introduced in the OpenLearn unit Animals at the extremes: The desert environment (S324_1).
By the end of this free course you should be able to:
- define and use, or recognize definitions and applications of, each of the bold terms;
- give definitions of the terms ‘hibernation’, ‘torpor’ and ‘adaptive hypothermia’, and the three physiological processes that underlie them;
- give examples of the diversity of the major groups of mammals and birds that contain hibernating species;
- describe the physiological changes occurring during entry to hibernation and at least three of the cues that may trigger entry;
- present evidence to show that hibernating mammals and birds retain physiological control of their T
- explain the role of brown adipose tissue and mitochondrial uncoupling of respiration from metabolic energy release in heat generation in mammals;
- describe the analytical and targeted experimental approaches to the identification of genes and proteins implicated in hibernation and arousal, and give examples of them;
- explain the importance of the selection of appropriate metabolic fuel sources in hibernators;
- describe the changes needed to maintain hibernation and survival at cellular level;
- critically describe experiments designed to evaluate the energy cost of hibernation as compared with euthermia, and discuss the importance of three factors that influence whether animals use hibernation as an energy-conserving strategy;
- suggest why periodic arousals occur and offer a mechanism for them;
- present experimental evidence for the view that control of T
b depends upon temperature-sensitive neurons and suggest where they may be located;
- give examples of systems of chemical control for the onset and maintenance of hibernation that operate in the brain and blood circulation;
- describe the relationship between circadian controls of sleep–waking cycles and the maintenance of torpor;
- use diagrams and flow-charts to illustrate physiological and biochemical principles.
- Current section: Introduction
- Learning outcomes
- 1 Hibernation and torpor: An introduction
- 2 The nature and extent of hibernation and torpor in endotherms
- 3 Characteristics of hibernation behaviour
- 4 Physiological adaptations – molecules and cells
- 5 Physiological adaptations – respiration and energy provision
- 6 Control systems
- 6.1 Introduction
- 6.2 The hypothalamus as central regulator
- 6.3 Metabolic regulation and the midbrain
- 6.4 Rapid-response genes and rhythmic neuronal activity
- 6.5 The neurotransmitters histamine and serotonin: a role for chemical signalling between neurons of the hypothalamus
- 6.6 Hormones and hibernation
- 6.7 Sleep, the brain and hibernation
- 6.8 Summary
- Unit Questions
Study this free course
Enrol to access the full course, get recognition for the skills you learn and track your progress. Make your learning visible!
Animals at the extremes: Hibernation and torpor
This is the second in a series of three units on Animals at the extremes. In order to get the most from it, you should have previously studied Animals at the extremes: Polar biology (S324_3).. After completing this unit you might like to complete the series by studying
This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Animal physiology (S324), which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this curriculum area.
This is an extract from an Open University course which is no longer available to new students. If you found this interesting you could explore more free Natural History courses or view the range of currently available OU Natural History courses.
Copyright & revisions
Originally published: Wednesday, 1st June 2011
Last updated on: Wednesday, 20th July 2011
- Creative-Commons: The Open University is proud to release this free course under a Creative Commons licence. However, any third-party materials featured within it are used with permission and are not ours to give away. These materials are not subject to the Creative Commons licence. See terms and conditions. Full details can be found in the Acknowledgements section.
- This site has Copy Reuse Tracking enabled - see our FAQs for more information.
If you enjoyed this, why not follow a feed to find out when we have new things like it? Choose an RSS feed from the list below. (Don't know what to do with RSS feeds?)
Remember, you can also make your own, personal feed by combining tags from around OpenLearn.