4.9 Costing bioenergy
For most renewable energy systems, the initial capital cost is the major component of the energy cost, however bioenergy systems, unlike many other renewable energy technologies, can also have significant fuel costs. Energy crops, for example, must be planted, fertilised, protected against weeds and pests, harvested and transported.
On the other hand, EfW may have negative fuel costs in the form of savings in payments for disposal of wastes.
Table 4 Estimated costs of biofuels and the costs of fossil fuels (Biofuel prices in US cents per litre excluding any possible taxes)
|Fuel Type||2006 (price/c l-1||2030 (price/cl-1)|
|Petrol excluding tax||45||60|
|Petrol including tax (Europe)||150||200|
|Petrol including tax (USA)||80||80|
|Ethanol from sugar cane||25||50||25||35|
|Ethanol from maize||60||80||35||55|
|Ethanol from sugar beet||60||80||40||60|
|Ethanol from wheat||70||95||45||65|
|Ethanol from lignocellulose||80||110||25||65|
|Biodiesel from animal fats||40||55||49||50|
|Biodiesel from oilseeds||70||100||40||75|
In 2008, the UK Royal Society produced estimates of current and possible future costs of a range of biofuels, as shown in Table 4. Ethanol from sugar cane is the cheapest biofuel, with biodiesel from surplus animal fats a reasonably close second. The data suggests that ethanol from lignocellulose is ultimately likely to be comparable in cost to ethanol from sugar cane.
The price of fossil fuels in 2030 seems unlikely to be less than the quoted 2006 price, which suggests that many of the biofuels could reach a comparable basic price to the consumer, depending on the taxation regime that is imposed.
Lastly for this week’s topics you will take a look at the future prospects for bioenergy.