English: skills for learning
English: skills for learning

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English: skills for learning

5.2 The 5Rs of summarising: reduce, reject, reword, reproduce, repackage

In this section, you will practise recognising the 5Rs in a summary.

Activity 9

Allow approximately 5 minutes

Read the following example summary which uses all of the 5Rs. Then look at each of the four summaries below and select which of the 5Rs you can see in them.

Original text: Many non-governmental organisations (NGOs) tackle health issues around the world, for example the Red Cross and Red Crescent, which often step in following earthquakes and other disasters.

Summary: The involvement of NGOs in health problems

The 5Rs

  • Reduce: the summary is shorter.
  • Reject: it misses out the example.
  • Reword: it uses problems instead of issues.
  • Reproduce: it is accurate.
  • Repackage: it compresses Many non-governmental organisations (NGOs) tackle health issues into The involvement of NGOs in health problems.

1 As an international government, the UN is involved in many different areas.

Summary: Involvement of UN in many different areas.

a. 

reduce


b. 

reject


c. 

reword


d. 

reproduce


e. 

repackage


The correct answers are a, b, d and e.

Answer

Reduce, reject, reproduce, repackage.

2 In 2001, UNAIDS launched the ‘3 by 5’ initiative with the goal of providing anti-retroviral drugs to 3 million people with HIV/AIDS living in developing countries by 2005.

Summary: Launch of ‘3 by 5’ initiative

a. 

reduce


b. 

reject


c. 

reword


d. 

reproduce


e. 

repackage


The correct answers are a, b, d and e.

Answer

Reduce, reject, reproduce, repackage.

3 It emphasises the need to get anti-retroviral drugs to people in Africa, Asia and other poorer parts of the world.

Summary: Emphasis on need to deliver anti-retroviral drugs to poorer parts of world

a. 

reduce


b. 

reject


c. 

reword


d. 

reproduce


e. 

repackage


The correct answers are a, b, d and e.

Answer

Reduce, reject, reproduce, repackage.

4 For the ‘3 by 5’ initiative to succeed, UNAIDS needs support from governments around the world and from NGOs like Oxfam and the Red Cross and Red Crescent. It also needs the support of big business, including the big pharmaceutical companies – big pharma.

Summary: Need for support from governments, NGOs and big business

a. 

reduce


b. 

reject


c. 

reword


d. 

reproduce


e. 

repackage


The correct answers are a, b, d and e.

Answer

Reduce, reject, reproduce, repackage.

Discussion

None of the four summaries reword the original text enough yet. However, they do use the other four Rs. Too little rewording in a longer summary is regarded as plagiarism.

SWE_1

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