from The Open University
Alternatively you can skip the navigation by pressing 'Enter'.
More or Less: Chinese market crash, e-cigarettes and runnersFriday, 28th August 2015 16:30 - BBC Radio 4More or Less investigates the Chinese market crash, e-cigarettes, engineering and how sprinters run so fast. Read more: More or Less: Chinese market crash, e-cigarettes and runners
The world’s busiest railway 2015 – Mumbai Railway: Episode 4Available until Saturday, 26th September 2015 22:00This final episode considers the challenges faced by the historic Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus - and asks what the... Read more: The world’s busiest railway 2015 – Mumbai Railway: Episode 4
BBC Inside Science: Genes, dust and brainsAvailable for over a year
The world’s busiest railway 2015 – Mumbai Railway: Episode 3Available until Friday, 25th September 2015 22:00
The world’s busiest railway 2015 – Mumbai Railway: Episode 2Available until Tuesday, 6th October 2015 20:00
Question Time for Yanis VaroufakisNine leading academics were given the chance to put their questions to the man who - for six... Read more: Question Time for Yanis Varoufakis
OpenLearn Live: 28th August 2015A resilient community in California, a much maligned subculture - and more free learning through... Read more: OpenLearn Live: 28th August 2015
Challenges in advanced management accountingThis free course, Challenges in advanced management accounting, focuses on strategic management... Try: Challenges in advanced management accounting now
English: skills for learningThis course is for anybody who is thinking of studying for a university degree and would like to... Try: English: skills for learning now
Tay Bridge disaster
The sudden collapse of Scotland's Tay Bridge in 1879 killed more than 70 rail...
The sudden collapse of Scotland's Tay Bridge in 1879 killed more than 70 rail passengers and shocked the population. An extensive inquiry was carried out, including numerous witnesses, experts and reports. Were the high winds that night to blame, or were poor design or mechanical failure at fault? This unit re-examines some of the original evidence from the Tay Bridge disaster.
By the end of this unit you should be able to:
- critically evaluate disasters and their causes, especially from mechanical or material failures;
- demonstrate the importance of systematic and rigorous analysis of disasters, so that future failures can be avoided or prevented.
- Current section: Introduction
- Learning outcomes
- 1 Disasters of natural origin
- 2 Disasters of human origin
- 3 Tay Bridge disaster
- 4 Investigation into the Tay Bridge disaster
- 4.1 Condition of the bridge: an overview
- 4.2 An introduction to the Board of Trade photographs
- 4.3 Photographs showing the detail: collapsed piers
- 4.4 Photographs showing the detail: partly collapsed piers
- 4.5 Photographs showing the detail: broken lugs
- 4.6 Photographs showing the detail: debris field
- 4.7 Photographs showing the detail: damage to pier 1
- 4.8 Photographs showing the detail: standing pier 28
- 4.9 Survey results
- 4.10 High girders and the train
- 4.11 Model for pier failure
- 5 Board of Trade enquiry into the Tay Bridge disaster
- 5.1 Overview
- 5.2 Eye-witness testimony
- 5.3 Worker testimony
- 5.4 Expert evidence: an overview
- 5.5 Evidence of Henry Law
- 5.6 Casting defects
- 5.7 Fitment flaws
- 5.8 Design problems
- 5.9 Mechanical tests by David Kirkaldy
- 5.10 Bridge stability
- 5.11 Further evidence on stability
- 5.12 Pole and Stewart report
- 5.13 Conclusion of the BoT enquiry
- 5.14 Questions remain and myths persist
- 5.15 Further investigation is possible
- 6 Afterword
Study this free course
Enrol to access the full course, get recognition for the skills you learn and track your progress. Make your learning visible!
Tay Bridge disaster
This unit starts by giving an overview of the two main categories of disasters: disasters of natural origin and disasters of human origin. It then analyses the Tay Bridge disaster, which was caused by mechanical failure.
Inevitably, human factors emerge as important in many major disasters. They may involve the failure by engineers, designers or managers to recognise faults in safety-critical products, or managers overriding the design team for other reasons – such as keeping to a deadline or keeping costs within a predetermined budget. We cannot therefore neglect discussing such problems in failure cases.
One way of examining such events is by dividing them into two categories, those of natural origin, and those occurring to manufactured structures. The division cannot be enforced rigorously, however, because the one can cause or interact with the other. The great forces unleashed by natural effects can make a structure unstable and hence unsafe, or even destroy it entirely. Structures should therefore be designed to withstand such forces.
It follows immediately that designers need to know what magnitude of force to expect for the lifetime of their particular product. When structures such as ships, aircraft or spacecraft are made specifically to withstand extreme environments, they should be able to resist those forces safely.
Note: most of this unit is based on information that contained British imperial units. Those units have been kept so that you can consider the information as it was considered during the original investigations.
Copyright & revisions
Originally published: Wednesday, 20th July 2011
- Creative-Commons: The Open University is proud to release this free course under a Creative Commons licence. However, any third-party materials featured within it are used with permission and are not ours to give away. These materials are not subject to the Creative Commons licence. See terms and conditions. Full details can be found in the Acknowledgements section.
- This site has Copy Reuse Tracking enabled - see our FAQs for more information.
If you enjoyed this, why not follow a feed to find out when we have new things like it? Choose an RSS feed from the list below. (Don't know what to do with RSS feeds?)
Remember, you can also make your own, personal feed by combining tags from around OpenLearn.