3 The flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein
The information flow from DNA to protein is more complex than shown in Figure 1. The genetic information encoded within the DNA of a gene is carried via an intermediary molecule, RNA (ribonucleic acid). Information within a cell can therefore be seen as passing from DNA, via RNA, to a protein. This flow of information can be expressed in another way.
DNA makes RNA makes protein.
This statement implies that there are two separate steps in this information flow: from DNA to RNA and from RNA to protein; these are called, respectively, transcription and translation. Transcription of DNA produces RNA and the subsequent translation of this RNA produces proteins. These steps are summarized in Figure 2 (also click on the link to the video clip below).
Video: Click to view clip from DNA to RNA to protein