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Genius of the Modern World: NietzscheFriday, 24th June 2016 01:05 - BBC Radio 4 BBC4 SignedBettany Hughes takes us on an exploration of Friedrich Nietzsche's life and works. Read more: Genius of the Modern World: Nietzsche
The Big C & Me: Episode 2Friday, 24th June 2016 01:05 - BBC Two
Genius of the Modern World: NietzscheFriday, 24th June 2016 02:40 - BBC Four
Thinking Allowed 2016: A special programme on Pierre BourdieuMonday, 27th June 2016 00:15 - BBC Radio 4
Genius of the Modern World: NietzscheAvailable until Friday, 29th July 2016 00:00Bettany Hughes takes us on an exploration of Friedrich Nietzsche's life and works. Read more: Genius of the Modern World: Nietzsche
The Big C & Me: Episode 2Available until Sunday, 24th July 2016 02:05
The Big C & Me: Episode 3Available until Friday, 22nd July 2016 23:55
Thinking Allowed 2016: A special programme on Pierre BourdieuAvailable for over a year
Camer-gone and Brexit: What should we expect next?Events are happening very quickly today - in the last hour David Cameron has announced his... Read more: Camer-gone and Brexit: What should we expect next?
City in The SkyThis three-part OU/BBC co-production on BBC Two investigates the 'City in the Sky'. You... Read more: City in The Sky
Grammar mattersGrammar matters because, combined with vocabulary choice, it is our main way of making meaning.... Try: Grammar matters now
Introduction to cyber securityThis free course, Introduction to cyber security, will help you to understand online security and... Try: Introduction to cyber security now
This free course, What do genes do? explores how information contained in DNA is used, explaining the flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein. Also introduced are the concepts of transcription (as occurs between DNA and RNA) and translation.
After studying this course, you should be able to:
- understand how the linear sequence of DNA within a gene is related to the linear sequence of amino acids of a protein
- understand how the information in DNA is carried via RNA to make a protein
- understand how RNA is synthesised from DNA by the process of transcription
- understand where the processes of transcription and translation occur within the cell.
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Enrol to access the full course, get recognition for the skills you learn, track your progress and on completion gain a statement of participation to demonstrate your learning to others. Make your learning visible!
5 Where does transcription occur in the cell?
Up to now we have described the processes of transcription without considering where each occurs within the cell.
Given that transcription — the production of mRNA — requires a DNA template, where do you think this process occurs in the cell?
It must occur in the nucleus where the DNA in the cell is located.
However, once mRNA is produced, it leaves the nucleus and protein synthesis – translation – occurs in the cytoplasm. Thus transcription and translation are separated both in space within the cell and in time, in that one occurs after the other, as shown schematically in Figure 11.8. Thus the role of mRNA is to carry a coded message from the nucleus where the information is stored, to the cytoplasm where the coded message is translated into a specific protein; hence it’s name – messenger RNA.
Translation occurs at particular sites within the cytoplasm; it occurs on ribosomes. Ribosomes are large aggregates of proteins and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Hence three types of RNA are involved in the process of translation but only one of them, mRNA, codes for proteins.
Video: Click to view clip of conclusion to this course
This free course includes adapted extracts from an Open University course which is no longer available to new students. If you found this interesting you could explore more free Biology courses or view the range of currently available OU Biology courses.
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Originally published: Wednesday, 2nd March 2016
Last updated on: Wednesday, 2nd March 2016
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