1.4.1 Metallic structures and bonding
Metal crystals are built from layers of densely packed metal cations (atoms that have lost one or more electrons, leaving them positively charged). The ions are organised in regular, close-packed arrangements. In close-packing, a layer of identically sized atoms (or ions) occupies the minimum possible space - like a raft of hard spheres (e.g. marbles) in contact with each other. Each atom has six neighbours in a plane. The three-dimensional structure of a metal involves the successive stacking of close-packed layers on top of each other.
In metallic bonding, atoms donate one or more outer electrons to a free electron 'sea' (Figure 12a), which flows between and around the cations and acts as a kind of glue, holding them together. This kind of bonding is uniform in all directions, so that metallic structures are dense and close-packed. The electron mobility renders metals both malleable and ductile, which are vital properties for producing thin sheets and for stretching out to form thin cables or filaments (e.g. copper wire).