The Open University since 2006
Alternatively you can skip the navigation by pressing 'Enter'.
More or Less: How many cows for a fiver?Friday, 2nd December 2016 16:30 - BBC Radio 4 BBC Radio 4
More or Less: How many cows for a fiver?Sunday, 4th December 2016 20:00 - BBC Radio 4 BBC Radio 4
The Secret History of Our Streets - London: Arnold CircusTuesday, 6th December 2016 22:00 - BBC Four
The Secret History of Our Streets - London: Arnold CircusThursday, 8th December 2016 00:45 - BBC Four
Colour: The Spectrum of Science: Episode 1: Colours of EarthAvailable until Saturday, 31st December 2016 23:00Dr Helen Czerski explores the golds, whites, reds, blues and much more in the first episode of the series. Read more: Colour: The Spectrum of Science: Episode 1: Colours of Earth
BBC Inside Science - 2016/2017 series: Alzheimer's research, Lucy, Glowing bandage package, Supernovas to HollywoodAvailable for over a year
The Secret History of Our Streets - London: Reverdy RoadAvailable until Saturday, 31st December 2016 01:30
All in the Mind - Autumn/Winter 2016: Pathological demand avoidance, wisdom and stand-up comedy anxietyAvailable for over a year
Human Rights Week10 December is Human Rights Day but here at The Open University we'll be exploring progress made... Read more: Human Rights Week
Take the photographic memory testCan you capture scenes just by looking at them? Find out with our photographic memory test. Launch now: Take the photographic memory test
Exploring equality and equity in educationThis free course, Exploring equality and equity in education, considers the complexity of social... Try: Exploring equality and equity in education now
Organisations and management accountingThis free course, Organisations and management accounting, examines the nature of organisations,... Try: Organisations and management accounting now
The new discipline of astrobiology that is, the science of searching for extraterrestrial life is not only rapdly growing, but has also captured the public imagination. This free course, Icy bodies: Europa and elsewhere, examines the emergence of icy satellites of distant planets as potential sites of extraterrestrial life, looks at the potential for life on Jupiter's moon Europa, and speculates on the ethics of searching for life elsewhere in the solar system.
After studying this course, you should be able to:
- discuss processes upon and within, and internal structure of, differentiated icy bodies (primarily large satellites) in comparison with the terrestrial planets
- describe the conditions that may be required to originate and foster life in an icy body and discuss the likelihood of their having occurred
- recognise the moral and ethical issues of landing spacecraft on potential life-bearing worlds and appreciate the need for appropriate professional codes of conduct in this respect.
- Current section: Introduction
- Learning outcomes
- 1 Icy satellites: introduction
- 2 Europa
- 3 Other icy bodies as abodes of life?
- Keep on learning
Study this free course
Enrol to access the full course, get recognition for the skills you learn, track your progress and on completion gain a statement of participation to demonstrate your learning to others. Make your learning visible!
Icy bodies: Europa and elsewhere
Until the 1980s, the icy satellites of the outer planets were scarcely thought of as places where life could ever have existed. Few could have imagined that one of them, Europa, would within twenty years have become the rival of Mars as a priority for astrobiological study. This course recounts the history of our changing perceptions of the icy satellites, examines the available evidence for their internal structures, and considers the niches offered for life to begin and to be sustained. In this context, the 'habitable zone' embraces settings devoid of both sunlight and an atmosphere. These are areas where life could survive on the energy from chemical reactions made possible by the discharge of hot chemically enriched fluids through vents on the floor of an ocean capped by a thick layer of ice. Note that 'ice' does not necessarily mean just frozen water. In the outer Solar System, although H2O is usually the dominant component, ice can incorporate other frozen volatiles such as NH3, CO2, CO, CH4 and N2.
This OpenLearn course is an adapted extract from the Open University course S283.
Copyright & revisions
Originally published: Wednesday, 16th March 2016
Last updated on: Wednesday, 16th March 2016
- Creative-Commons: The Open University is proud to release this free course under a Creative Commons licence. However, any third-party materials featured within it are used with permission and are not ours to give away. These materials are not subject to the Creative Commons licence. See terms and conditions. Full details can be found in the Acknowledgements and our FAQs section.
- This site has Copy Reuse Tracking enabled - see our FAQs for more information.
If you enjoyed this, why not follow a feed to find out when we have new things like it? Choose an RSS feed from the list below. (Don't know what to do with RSS feeds?)
Remember, you can also make your own, personal feed by combining tags from around OpenLearn.
All our alternative formats are free for you to download, for more information about the different formats we offer please see our FAQs. The most frequently used are Word (for accessibility), PDF (for print) and ePub and Kindle to download to eReaders*.
- Word (4.2 MB)
- PDF (5 MB)
- ePub 3.0 (3.4 MB)
- ePub 2.0 (3.4 MB)
- Kindle (1.6 MB)
- RSS (418 KB)
- HTML (3.1 MB)
- SCORM (3.1 MB)
- OUXML Package (53 KB)
- OUXML File (170 KB)
- IMS Common cartridge
*Please note you will need an ePub and Mobi reader for these formats.