The Open University since 2006
Alternatively you can skip the navigation by pressing 'Enter'.
Sleuths, Spies & Sorcerers: Andrew Marr’s Paperback Heroes: FantasyTuesday, 25th October 2016 02:50 - BBC FourWhat set of writing conventions govern fantasy novels by the likes of George RR Martin? Andrew Marr explores... Read more: Sleuths, Spies & Sorcerers: Andrew Marr’s Paperback Heroes: Fantasy
All in the Mind - Autumn/Winter 2016: Tasers, Amnesia Museum, The dangers of diagnosing Donald TrumpTuesday, 25th October 2016 21:00 - BBC Radio 4
All in the Mind - Autumn/Winter 2016: Tasers, Amnesia Museum, The dangers of diagnosing Donald TrumpWednesday, 26th October 2016 15:30 - BBC Radio 4
Sleuths, Spies & Sorcerers: Andrew Marr’s Paperback Heroes: FantasyWednesday, 26th October 2016 23:00 - BBC Four
Inside The Commons: Reinventing The HouseAvailable until Saturday, 29th October 2016 19:00In the final part of this major four-part series, battles break out over the future of the House. Read more: Inside The Commons: Reinventing The House
The Bottom Line: Autumn 2016: Activist investorsAvailable for over a year
BBC Inside Science - 2016/2017 series: HFC Ban; Human Cell Atlas; Origin of Hunting with DogsAvailable for over a year
Sleuths, Spies & Sorcerers: Andrew Marr’s Paperback Heroes: DetectivesAvailable until Friday, 18th November 2016 22:00
The Great British YearThe definitive portrait of the spectacular nature of the country over the course of one year. Read more: The Great British Year
Take the photographic memory testCan you capture scenes just by looking at them? Find out with our photographic memory test. Launch now: Take the photographic memory test
Liquidity managementIn this free course you will focus on liquidity management, one of the fundamental aspects... Try: Liquidity management now
Forensic psychologyIn this free course, Forensic psychology, you will discover how psychology can help obtain... Try: Forensic psychology now
The new discipline of astrobiology that is, the science of searching for extraterrestrial life is not only rapdly growing, but has also captured the public imagination. This free course, Icy bodies: Europa and elsewhere, examines the emergence of icy satellites of distant planets as potential sites of extraterrestrial life, looks at the potential for life on Jupiter's moon Europa, and speculates on the ethics of searching for life elsewhere in the solar system.
After studying this course, you should be able to:
- discuss processes upon and within, and internal structure of, differentiated icy bodies (primarily large satellites) in comparison with the terrestrial planets
- describe the conditions that may be required to originate and foster life in an icy body and discuss the likelihood of their having occurred
- recognise the moral and ethical issues of landing spacecraft on potential life-bearing worlds and appreciate the need for appropriate professional codes of conduct in this respect.
- Current section: Introduction
- Learning outcomes
- 1 Icy satellites: introduction
- 2 Europa
- 3 Other icy bodies as abodes of life?
- Keep on learning
Study this free course
Enrol to access the full course, get recognition for the skills you learn, track your progress and on completion gain a statement of participation to demonstrate your learning to others. Make your learning visible!
Icy bodies: Europa and elsewhere
Until the 1980s, the icy satellites of the outer planets were scarcely thought of as places where life could ever have existed. Few could have imagined that one of them, Europa, would within twenty years have become the rival of Mars as a priority for astrobiological study. This course recounts the history of our changing perceptions of the icy satellites, examines the available evidence for their internal structures, and considers the niches offered for life to begin and to be sustained. In this context, the 'habitable zone' embraces settings devoid of both sunlight and an atmosphere. These are areas where life could survive on the energy from chemical reactions made possible by the discharge of hot chemically enriched fluids through vents on the floor of an ocean capped by a thick layer of ice. Note that 'ice' does not necessarily mean just frozen water. In the outer Solar System, although H2O is usually the dominant component, ice can incorporate other frozen volatiles such as NH3, CO2, CO, CH4 and N2.
This OpenLearn course is an adapted extract from the Open University course S283.
Copyright & revisions
Originally published: Wednesday, 16th March 2016
Last updated on: Wednesday, 16th March 2016
- Creative-Commons: The Open University is proud to release this free course under a Creative Commons licence. However, any third-party materials featured within it are used with permission and are not ours to give away. These materials are not subject to the Creative Commons licence. See terms and conditions. Full details can be found in the Acknowledgements and our FAQs section.
- This site has Copy Reuse Tracking enabled - see our FAQs for more information.
If you enjoyed this, why not follow a feed to find out when we have new things like it? Choose an RSS feed from the list below. (Don't know what to do with RSS feeds?)
Remember, you can also make your own, personal feed by combining tags from around OpenLearn.
All our alternative formats are free for you to download, for more information about the different formats we offer please see our FAQs. The most frequently used are Word (for accessibility), PDF (for print) and ePub and Kindle to download to eReaders*.
- Word (4.2 MB)
- PDF (5 MB)
- ePub 3.0 (3.4 MB)
- ePub 2.0 (3.4 MB)
- Kindle (1.6 MB)
- RSS (418 KB)
- HTML (3.1 MB)
- SCORM (3.1 MB)
- OUXML Package (53 KB)
- OUXML File (170 KB)
- IMS Common cartridge
*Please note you will need an ePub and Mobi reader for these formats.