3.6 The Psycho-Pedagogical Integration Model
At the end of the Human Biology course, Amanda realises that she has learnt a lot of new material, learning techniques as well as having experienced a whole set of new learning tools in the form of widgets. She is now prepared to start the upcoming semester using some of those widgets, for example the goal setting tool, as well as all the other learning tools that she has been introduced to throughout the Human Biology course.
Amanda has had a positive experience all round but is curious to understand what the basis was that was used by the developers of the widgets. She does some independent research and discovers that ROLE is a European funded project that has focused on both Self-Regulated learning (SRL) as well as the development and implementation of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs). To achieve much of this work ROLE established a series of models that enabled the project team to realise the widget functionalities as well as linked together attain the overall SRL and PLE environments.
The underlying model is called the Psycho-Pedagogical Integration Model (PPIM). The PPIM has been defined for the ROLE project and builds on the concept of the SRL approach that is based on a cyclic model (Zimmerman, 2002).
The PPIM consists of three phases in which certain SRL activities are performed, namely the:
forethought phase e.g. goal setting, planning and similar
performance phase e.g. self-observation processes
self-reflection phase e.g. self-reflection processes
To meet the purposes of implementation in an online learning environment this model has been extended towards a self-regulated personalised learning approach by adding a self-profiling phase where learners can indicate their own preferences and select relevant resources. Amanda has achieved this herself by finding and locating appropriate learning techniques, tools and materials by using a set of ROLE learning widgets.
She also discovers that the four phases of this learning process model have been defined in full and, in many ways, mimic her own leanring journey on the Human Biology course. These are often described as learner-centred phases in that the:
(1) learner profile information is defined or revised,
(2) learners find and select learning resources (as she did)
(3) learners work on/with selected learning resources (as she did)
(4) learners reflect and react on strategies, achievements and usefulness of the selected learning resources/approaches (as she did)
Ultimately, a further five key aspects have been derived from different learning theories which are included in the PPIM. These key aspects focus on:
guidance and freedom
meta-cognition and awareness
collaboration and good practice sharing
The key aspects are interconnected and also influence on each other. As they are derived from the components of SRL there is a strong connection to the self-regulated personalised learning approach and to the learning process model (Fruhmann, Nussbaumer & Albert, 2010).