Learning and practice: Agency and identities
Learning and practice: Agency and identities

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Learning and practice: Agency and identities

2 Thinking about practice

When you think of practice in relation to yourself, what images emerge? 'Practice' is a word used frequently to mean 'what people do'. Is that what you thought of; some aspect of doing?

In a workplace setting, novices are often immediately immersed in an ongoing practice. You saw something of this as the young doctor at the computer described how she learned. She explained her own learning as a process of becoming a different person. She described her initial sense of herself as a person 'at sea in a foreign airport': something of a mixed analogy, but perhaps something you can relate to if you think of a situation where you were dependent on signs to direct you and they were all in a foreign language. Through her learning, the young doctor described herself as becoming someone who understood how to engage in the practices of the ward and why certain things are done in certain ways. The more competent she became the more she felt like a 'doctor'. Through her engagement, she became involved in shared world views that are often not articulated but tacit and, consequently, often not assessed.

Communities of practice reflect 'a shared history of learning that requires some catching up for joining' (Wenger, 1998, p. 102) as the junior doctors demonstrated. The evolution of a community and its associated practices is influenced by changes in societal needs and values and the tools available to achieve community goals. In a sociocultural perspective then, you cannot ignore the historical context or the wider institutional and social context of particular communities as these shape what is practiced and why and, therefore, what is available to learn.

Activity 4

Listen to the Audio again, this time focussing on Karen and what she and the children are doing.

Download this audio clip.Audio player: Testing Children
Skip transcript: Testing Children

Transcript: Testing Children

Boy:
I’m always getting a low score and everyone’s getting a higher score than me and I don’t really like it.
Girl:
I’ll get it all completely wrong and I won’t even get any right and I’ve just got that worry in me.
Boy:
I don’t really like testing because you get a massive booklet and it’s go about 50 questions in it and you’ve only got half an hour to do ‘em.
Girl:
It makes you worry because sometimes you rush it and you don’t get the right answers.
Boy:
It doesn’t really matter if someone’s better than you at one subject because if you’re trying your best it doesn’t really matter.
Lloyd Hutchinson:
A formal system of testing in primary schools was introduced by the government in England and Wales in the mid 1990s.
Andrew Pollard, Professor of Education at Cambridge University, has done extensive research on this area.
Andrew Pollard:
There was a, a clear intention by the government to make schools more accountable. So tests had that kind of primary purpose when they were initially introduced. They would provide evidence for parents. They would provide evidence with which schools could be compared and evidence with which standards could be ratcheted up.
Lloyd Hutchinson:
Since their introduction, tests have increased academic standards but they have also had an unforseen impact on children themselves.
This primary school in the English Midlands has 425 children aged four to eleven years old.
Karen:
Good morning, Luke.
Luke:
Good morning, Miss ?
Lloyd Hutchinson:
Karen teaches four and five year olds in the Reception class. It is her job to do a baseline test on the children, usually within the first few weeks of starting school.
Karen:
Right. You’ve all got a set of numbers. I’m going to ask you to show me a different one. Dominic, can you show me number nine?
Rebecca, can you find me number six?
Baseline assessment is basically finding out where the children are at. So we use that really as a type of a bench mark as to where we’re going to go from here.
Can you now get me ten?
We’re ordering, first of all, it’s numeral recognition to see how many of the numbers between zero and ten they can select themselves and recognise. Ordering them, to see if they have an awareness of where the numbers come in sequence, giving them the number lines so they can self correct for themselves if they would like to and now we’re doing one to one counting to see whether they can count up to ten objects accurately.
Lloyd Hutchinson:
The results of the baseline test also enabled parents to assess their child’s abilities.
Karen:
This is a booklet which has already been filled out. On the personal and social development, they’re graded A, B and C, C being the highest grade. So, it can be quite alarming to parents if they see As, especially if it was all As because sometimes they may not either feel it’s justified or they feel that at home it isn’t like that.
Now, in this particular one, it’s sort of quite, you know, pleasing to the eye, because, you know, they have their four ticks whereas in some other areas where there is maybe only one tick it would instantly bring, you know sort of, ‘is that OK?’, normally is the question and, you know, ‘do we need to be doing things? Is this normal?’ So, parents can use the baseline to label their children, if they so wish. If they have lots of ticks they could decide that their child was particularly bright and if they had lots of crosses they could, at the end of the day, decide their child wasn’t.
Andrew Pollard:
Assessment provides parents with some kind of socially approved information about their children’s performance which they didn’t have before. So an awful lot depends on the kind of view that the parent takes. What you need, of course, is a parent who supports the child’s learning in a developmental way.
Clearly, if a parent treats the child harshly in relation to an assessment outcome then the child’s going to feel more pressure because of that. And, but there is a great deal of variability, I think, in parental response.
End transcript: Testing Children
Testing Children
Interactive feature not available in single page view (see it in standard view).

As you listen to what Karen says she does and why, think about her assessment practice and make notes on what may be influencing both what she assesses and how she assesses.

Discussion

In the 'Testing times' excerpt, Karen was doing things that enabled her to do her job, and she explained what these were and how they related to the wider needs of the institution, the school. These were practices to do with being a teacher, which is her community of practice. Karen used her assessment records to communicate with parents, which was a school requirement. This school practice was, in turn, influenced by the requirement that all schools provide assessment information, a requirement placed on them by government, local and national.

To make sense of what Karen is doing (i.e. her practice), we need to know something about the social context in which she works and the situation's historical context, since the meaning and significance of the baseline assessment of young children in England has shifted over time. In the 1980s, there was no requirement to assess young children. In the 1990s, what was assessed, and how, was significantly different from what Karen is doing in the excerpt. Hence what Karen does, the practice she engages in, is mediated by structures beyond her control: that is, national policy and her school's policy about what she is supposed to assess, and how that is recorded and reported. These wider social and institutional contextual aspects give meaning and structure to her practice.

In Karen's classroom, you saw four and five year olds learning how to sequence numbers. As they did this, the children were engaging with specific resources, terms and ways of thinking about the world, all of which could be regarded as practices. Lave and Wenger (1991) distinguish what children do, when they engage in such practices, from the practices that mathematicians engage in and from those of other professional communities such as engineers, accountants or retail workers, all of whom draw on particular mathematical practices for particular purposes. Consequently, they argue that the community children are becoming part of, and are developing competence in relation to, is the 'community of schooled adults'. The practices selected for them to engage with were prescribed, and were divorced from doing maths either in the world or in the way that mathematicians do maths. This is in marked contrast to what was happening with the junior doctors.

For the young doctor, his understanding of the syringe and how to use it was embedded in his sense of purpose, the community's enterprise of treating people who are ill. This shared purpose also helped the other young doctor to negotiate the unknown. As she engaged in the daily activity of the ward her understanding of this purpose also deepened. The children, on the other hand, were engaged in becoming competent maths learners, and this competence is defined externally in terms of what society assumes people should know about maths to be considered 'educated'. For many children then their learning, and the shared enterprise, is about passing the exams that label you as competent. Consequently, their knowledge is not necessarily going to be functional and serve them as tools.

Rogoff (2008) argues that Western educational systems give value to learning abstract knowledge, which it is believed can be applied across contexts. Though she points out automatically doing the same thing in a new situation is not necessarily effective. This view of knowledge may well be a barrier for students when faced with new situations. To change the goals for learning in school to be about learning practices it is necessary, according to a sociocultural view, to enable learners to associate them with being particular types of people engaged in the world for particular purposes (Rogoff, 2008). Practices only make sense in context. An instrument like a syringe implies a lot about the practices associated with it. Think of some other contexts where syringes are used: for example, as measuring devices for gases or liquids in science lessons, as instruments for icing cakes or for applying sealant in a DIY context. In these contexts, how the syringe is filled is a quite different practice from the one used in a medical context.

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