3.3.2 Collaborative structuring (sometimes called ‘structuring situations and transferring responsibility’)
Rogoff et al. argue that parents and other caregivers are active in structuring children's environment according to their perceived goals for development. There are several levels of structure. At a macro level is the overall timetable of the child's day (the balance of time for play, tasks, feeding, washing, resting, etc.), the opportunities for participation in specific cultural activities and the extent to which these activities are separated/integrated. At a micro level is the way specific tasks and activities are adapted to the perceived capacities of the child, broken down into manageable elements through interactions that enable the child to achieve a goal or complete a task. As children become more competent so responsibility may be transferred from teacher to learner. The distinctive feature of Rogoff's framework is acknowledgement that adult and child roles are variable according to contexts and goals as well as children's status and role. In some contexts they may be ascribed by tradition or by the status differential between teacher and taught. In other contexts, especially in ‘child-centred’ informal settings, they may be subject to continuous renegotiation.
Activity 2: Analysing cooking with Dad
Try applying the concepts of guided participation to the video sequence of Joe cooking with his father Philip (Video 3). Look for both verbal and non-verbal examples of the following:
Philip says: ‘Do you remember, we have to cream it …’
Joe says ‘You need a driver [mixer].’
Structuring at a macro level
Look at the way Philip organises the ingredients and utensils, brings elements of the task in and out of Joe's immediate view, sequences the task into a series of stages, and introduces each in turn.
Structuring at a micro level
Look at the way Philip ‘reduces the degrees of freedom’ so that Joe can participate at each stage, by asking him to do a specific action and even by taking hold of his hand.
Wood's levels of control could also be applied here. But how far is Joe learning through observing his father and how far through being instructed in each element of the cake-making process?
When Philip invites Joe to do something, and where he does not: ‘There, you have a go.’
Where Joe makes a bid to be given responsibility, or asks for more help: ‘l can't how to do it.’