1.9 Summary and conclusion: ‘take-away messages’
It helps to understand the PhD in context: the modern PhD is typically a three-year research training providing evidence of the ability to conduct and bring to fruition an independent programme of research. It requires rigour and an ability to enter the discourse, but its scope is limited and it does not require perfection. Models of study and models of dissertations vary for different universities, disciplines, and topics. The key is to understand what is appropriate for your particular programme, and what sorts of expectations your discipline has about research approaches, evidence, argumentation, and knowledge claims.