Composition and improvisation in cross-cultural perspective
Composition and improvisation in cross-cultural perspective

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Bhatkhande, V.N. (1987) Hindustani Sangit Paddhati: kramik pustak malika, 6 vols, Sangeet Karyalaya, Hathras.
Cook, S. (1992) Guide to Sundanese music: a practical introduction to gamelan salendro/pelog, gamelan degung, panambih tembang Sunda, Bandung.
Apel, W. (ed.) (1944) The Harvard Dictionary of music, Heinemann, London.
Hood, M. (1975) ‘Improvisation in the stratified ensembles of Southeast Asia’ in Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 25–33.
Nettl, B. (1974) ‘Thoughts on improvisation: a comparative approach’, Musical Quarterly, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 1–19.
Nettl, B. (1983) The study of ethnomusicology: twenty-nine issues and concepts, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois.
Sadie, S. (ed.) (1980) The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Macmillan, London.
Randel, D.M. (ed) (1986) The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachussets.
Pressing, J. (1984) ‘Cognitive processes in improvisation’ in Cognitive processes in the perception of art, W. Ray Crozier and A.J. Chapman (eds), North-Holland (imprint of Elsevier), Amsterdam.
Widdess, R. (1995) The ragas of early Indian music, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

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