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Discovering Ancient Greek and Latin
Discovering Ancient Greek and Latin

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8.6 The second declension

Table 19 below shows the genitive and dative endings of the second declension noun λόγος (‘word’). Again, we will concentrate on the singular endings. Most nouns ending in -ος belong to the second declension.

Table 19 λόγος, genitive and dative singular
CaseEndingλόγος
singular
genitive-ου (-ou)λόγου (logou)
dative-ῳ (-ōi)λόγῳ (logōi)

Activity 42

What is the genitive singular of the second declension noun Δαρεῖος (Dareios), the Persian king ‘Darius’)?

a. 

Δαρεῖος (Dareios)


b. 

Δαρείου (Dareiou)


c. 

Δαρείῳ (Dareiōi)


d. 

none of the above


The correct answer is b.

2. The name of the Greek god Hephaistos is a second declension noun, Ἥφαιστος (Hēphaistos). What case is Ἡφαίστῳ (Hēphaistōi)?

a. 

genitive


b. 

dative


c. 

none of the above


The correct answer is b.

Practice

Activity 43

Which Greek word could be used to translate the English word in bold?

Part a)

a) Antigone’s father

a. 

Ἀντιγόνην (Antigonēn)


b. 

Ἀντιγόνης (Antigonēs)


c. 

Ἀντιγόνῃ (Antigonēi)


The correct answer is b.

Answer

The genitive case is needed to indicate Antigone’s relationship with her father.

Part b)

b) Paris gave the apple to Aphrodite.

a. 

Ἀφροδίτην (Aphroditēn)


b. 

Ἀφροδίτης (Aphroditēs)


c. 

Ἀφροδίτῃ (Aphroditēi)


The correct answer is c.

Answer

The dative case is needed to indicate the recipient of the apple.

Part c)

c) Goliath was struck by a stone (‘a stone’ in Greek is λίθος, lithos)

a. 

λίθου (lithou)


b. 

λίθῳ (lithōi)


The correct answer is b.

Answer

A noun in the dative case is needed to indicate the instrument by which Goliath was struck.