Science in the Scottish Enlightenment
Science in the Scottish Enlightenment

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

Free course

Science in the Scottish Enlightenment

3.2 Publishing

One of the strongest impulses in the Enlightenment was to codify knowledge and publish it widely. The most notable example of this impulse is the French Encyclopedic, 'a rational dictionary of the sciences, art and trades’, published chiefly in Paris in the 1750s and 1760s, under the indomitable editorship of Denis Diderot. The seventeen volumes of text and eleven volumes of plates were intended to summarise and clearly present everything that was worth knowing, from the construction of a water wheel or a glass manufactory to the latest theories in the psychology of perception.

The impulse which drove Diderot was working in Edinburgh too. A number of encyclopaedias were started, but the venture which became the most famous was the Encyclopaedia Britannica, which started in the 1760s. Britannica was coaxed into life by the printer, William Smellie, a man who, though without formal academic qualifications, was a key figure in the dissemination of the work produced within Edinburgh. By the turn of the century, and with perhaps significantly less bashfulness about its origin, the Edinburgh Review was launched. This journal quickly achieved a British reputation and became one of the most influential reviews of science, politics, economics and the arts.

Figure 2
(From frontispiece to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 3rd edn, Edinburgh, 1788. Reproduced by permission of the British Library Board.) ©
British Library Board
Figure 2: An ideal of the Academy: the happy union of arts, science and technology. (Note that the title does not signal the encyclopaedia's Scottish origin – a further indication of the movement's ambivalent attitude to nationhood.)
AS208_2

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371