5 Activity 5
Activity 5 Paraphrasing strategies: using logical connectors and reordering sentences
Another way to show your understanding of the original text is to reorder the information in the sentences while still keeping the original meaning. To do this, you may have to use a different type of connector (such as although, because of, as a consequence of) from the original, to convey the same meaning and reword parts of the sentence.
Look at the following pairs of sentences and note how different logical connectors have been used without disturbing the meaning. Note changes in the order and wording.
A Even though people in Europe are aware of the need for safer sexual practices to protect against STDs, the evidence shows these are not always followed.
B In Europe, people do not always follow safe sexual practices, in spite of their awareness of the risks to health.
A In some countries, deaths through HIV/AIDS are having a negative effect on the economy because of the loss of young people from the labour market.
B The economies of some countries are damaged by the loss of young workers through AIDS.
Now look at sentences A and B below which are from the original text. Which one of the three alternative sentences is an accurate rewording in each case?
A Since the 1980s, infectious disease has re-emerged at the top of the global health agenda, destroying the optimism following World War 2 that modern medical interventions, such as antibiotic therapy and mass vaccination programmes, could eliminate deaths from infection.
1 Because of new medical interventions in developing countries since the 1980s, diseases such as HIV/AIDS have become much more important as a global medical issue.
2 In spite of the expectation that medical intervention would solve the problem of infectious disease, in recent decades new diseases such as HIV/AIDS have shown that this is again an important global health issue.
3 Although there have been new medical interventions since the 1980s, people still hope that diseases such as HIV AIDS will be eradicated and improve global health.
The correct answer is b.
A2 The original sentence says that infectious disease has … destroyed the optimism that modern medical interventions could eliminate death from infection. This is a cause–effect relationship. The paraphrasing changes the order. It would be possible to say: The optimism has been destroyed because of infectious disease. Instead, in spite of is used.
B Past epidemics and the long-term impact of diseases have been among the most potent forces shaping the current global distribution of population and cultures.
1 As a consequence of global distribution, people live in different parts of the world.
2 Because disease has affected many people in the world, their numbers are fewer.
3 The effects of disease around the globe have resulted in changes to where people live.
The correct answer is c.
B3 The original sentence says that disease has been one of the most potent forces shaping …distribution of population. This makes a cause–effect connection between disease and where people live.