Cànan nan Gàidheal (Gaelic language)
Cànan nan Gàidheal (Gaelic language)

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Cànan nan Gàidheal

2.5 Na Cànanan Brythonic

Tha na cànanan Brythonic air bàs gu leòr fhulang ann am Breatainn (mar eisimpleir, dh’fhalbh Cruithnis agus Seann Bhreatannais ann an Alba linntean mòra air ais), agus tha an fheadhainn a mhair beò ann an suidheachaidhean gu math eadar-dhealaichte bho chèile.

’S e a’ Chuimris an cànan Ceilteach as soirbheachaile, le mu 580,000 duine anns a’ Chuimrigh ag ràdh gun robh Cuimris aca ann an Cunntas-sluaigh 2001. Tha UNESCO ga comharrachadh mar ‘cugallach’; tha na cànanan Ceilteach ‘ann an cunnart’ no ‘ann am fìor chunnart’.

Tha an uiread de mhuinntir na Cuimrigh aig a bheil làn-sgilean na Cuimris (tha comas aca a labhairt, a leughadh ’s a sgrìobhadh) air a dhol am meud bho 13.6 as a’ cheud ann an 1991 gu 16.3 as a’ cheud ann an 2001. Tha Cuimris cuideachd air adhartas mòr a dhèanamh ann a bhith a’ faighinn inbhe oifigeil nas àirde anns a’ Chuimrigh [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] .

Dh’èirich Còrnais, coltach ri Cuimris, às a chànan Brythonic a bh’ air a bruidhinn aig aon àm thairis air ceann a deas Bhreatainn. Thàinig sgaradh eadar na tìrean anns an robh Cuimris is Còrnais gam bruidhinn às dèidh do na Sagsannaich Siarach a’ chùis a dhèanamh air na Ceiltich ann am Blàr Dyrham (faisg air Bath) ann an 577 AC.

Thathar a’ smaoineachadh gun robh Còrnais aig suas ri 38,000 duine tràth san 14mh linn ach chrìon i gu mòr fo bhuaidh na Beurla bho mheadhan an 16mh linn a-mach, agus dh’fhalbh i mar chànan coimhearsnachd anns an 18mh linn. Tha i a-nise ann an suidheachadh aiseirigh agus tha na ceudan ann aig a bheil i aig ìre fileantachd no leth-fhileantachd. Airson tuilleadh fiosrachaidh air eachdraidh Chòrnais, briog an seo (deas-bhriog airson an ceangal fhosgladh ann an uinneag no tab ùr).

Tha dualchas Ceilteach na Breatainne Bige a’ tighinn, chan ann bho shinnsireachd àrsaidh Ceiltich Ghaul, ach gu ìre mhòr bho in-imrich luchd-labhairt Ceilteis Brythonic à Breatainn, às dèidh do na h-Anglo-Sasannaich dhol a-steach ann bhon 5mh linn a-mach. Mar sin, ’s e Còrnais an cànan as dlùithe a th’ ann do Bhreatannais.

An-diugh tha mu 300,000 neach anns a’ Bhreatainn Bhig aig a bheil i, ach tha an àireamh air lughdachadh gu mòr bho mu mhillean ann an 1945. Anns na sgìrean as motha sa bheil i ga bruidhinn ann an taobh an iar na Breatainne Bige, tha an uiread aig a bheil i air a dhol sìos bho 90 as a’ cheud ann an 1900 gu nas lugha na 25 as a’ cheud an-diugh.

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