Addiction and neural ageing
Addiction and neural ageing

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Saturday, 25 Jun 2022, 00:02
Site: Open Learning
Course: Addiction and neural ageing (SD805_2)
Glossary: Glossary
S

stimulus–response psychology

An outlook within psychology which suggested that learning consists in forming relationships between stimuli and responses.

stress-induced analgesia

Analgesia (a process acting in opposition to pain) that arises as a result of the exposure of an animal to a fear-eliciting stimulus.

stress reaction

The response of the body to shock caused by damage to tissues and organs, involving the release of stress hormones which increase metabolic rate and initiate repair activities. Often accompanied by fever.

structural formula

A representation of a molecule that shows the order in which the atoms are connected together as well as all the bonds involved.

substrate-level phosphorylation

Formation of ATP by addition of a phosphate group from the reaction substrate, to ADP. (Compare with oxidative phosphorylation, which is ATP formation by addition of inorganic phosphate (Pi) to ADP.)

successive approximations

In the context of operant conditioning, a process whereby the demand is made more stringent before reward is given. This is a process of shaping.

sulcus

Sulci (plural) are folds in the cerebral cortex. They serve as landmarks for identifying brain regions.

superoxide dismutase (SOD)

An enzyme belonging to a large family of enzymes that catalyse the formation of dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide from even more dangerous superoxide radicals.

sympathetic nervous system

One of two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, it is responsible for activation of the body, e.g. sympathetic activity increases heart rate.

See also parasympathetic nervous system.

sympathetic overactivity

Overactivity of the part of the nervous system that controls such processes as heart rate, sweating and digestion. A consequence of its overactivity is a higher than normal heart rate.

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