Addiction and neural ageing
Addiction and neural ageing

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Friday, 24 Jun 2022, 23:53
Site: Open Learning
Course: Addiction and neural ageing (SD805_2)
Glossary: Glossary

total energy expenditure

Total energy used by the body over a period of time. It is the sum of the heat energy generated plus the external work done plus the energy stored.

trace elements

Elements that are needed in very small quantities in the diet.


(neural) A collection of axons physically located together within the central nervous system rather like wires in a cable. Also called a pathway.


The synthesis of an RNA molecule using DNA as the template.

transfer RNA (tRNA)

Small RNA molecules involved in protein synthesis. Each one carries a particular amino acid to a ribosome, which is itself attached to an mRNA molecule. Every tRNA molecule has an anticodon which recognizes a specific codon on the mRNA.

transgenic animal

An animal whose genome has been modified artificially by the addition of genes (DNA) from another organism. The transgenic animal has the ‘foreign’ genes incorporated into its genome.


The synthesis of a protein, whereby the information encoded in a sequence of mRNA bases determines the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein product.


Chemical name for fats and oils; also commonly called triglycerides. Made up of one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acid molecules.

trophic factors

Term used for factors that exert a nutritive, or trophic, effect on cells.



A small, highly conserved protein which derives its name from its widespread distribution – it is present in all eukaryotic cells and is located in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Ubiquitin becomes covalently attached to other intracellular proteins, thereby tagging them for breakdown.

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