Addiction and neural ageing
Addiction and neural ageing

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Glossary


Glossary for SD805_2
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A

APA

American Psychological Association.


aphasia

General medical term used to describe a disturbance of speech caused by damage to the brain; strictly, an absence of speech.


apolipoprotein E (ApoE)

The purified protein component of a lipoprotein particle. In mammals, a group of eight apolipoproteins will most often be present in a set ratio. This complex molecule serves a wide variety of functions in the blood, including transport of fat from tissue to tissue.


APP

Amyloid precursor protein.


artefact

Something unnatural that arises as a result of an experimental intervention. For example, a structure that is seen when a cell preparation is examined under the microscope may appear to be a natural cell component, but may actually be the result of an alteration in the cell’s structure caused by the procedures used to prepare the specimen for microscopy.


associative

Derived from a history of associations, as in Pavlovian conditioning.


associative conditioning

The process by which an organism forms an association between two events. The term covers both classical and instrumental conditioning. In either case, one event owes its strength to its pairing with some other event.


associative learning

Learning by experience to associate two events that have been paired (e.g. the sight of a needle with the effect of heroin).


atom

The smallest particle of an element, consisting of a core of protons and neutrons (the nucleus) surrounded by electrons.


ATP

Adenosine triphosphate. Each molecule of ATP is made up of a nucleotide base, a sugar unit and a chain of three phosphate groups.  ATP is the energy currency of the cell.  Energy is stored as ATP in the reaction between ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and Pi (inorganic phosphate):

ADP + PiArrow ATP

and is made available as required via the breakdown of ATP to ADP and Pi.



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