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American Psychological Association.
General medical term used to describe a disturbance of speech caused by damage to the brain; strictly, an absence of speech.
apolipoprotein E (ApoE)
Amyloid precursor protein.
Something unnatural that arises as a result of an experimental intervention. For example, a structure that is seen when a cell preparation is examined under the microscope may appear to be a natural cell component, but may actually be the result of an alteration in the cell’s structure caused by the procedures used to prepare the specimen for microscopy.
Derived from a history of associations, as in Pavlovian conditioning.
Learning by experience to associate two events that have been paired (e.g. the sight of a needle with the effect of heroin).
Adenosine triphosphate. Each molecule of ATP is made up of a nucleotide base, a sugar unit and a chain of three phosphate groups. ATP is the energy currency of the cell. Energy is stored as ATP in the reaction between ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and Pi (inorganic phosphate):
ADP + Pi ATP
and is made available as required via the breakdown of ATP to ADP and Pi.