Addiction and neural ageing
Addiction and neural ageing

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Glossary


Glossary for SD805_2
Browse the glossary using this index

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A

autoimmune disease

Type of disease in which the immune system of an organism attacks the normal healthy body of the same organism. Autoimmunity or immunological reactions caused by antibodies or T lymphocytes can produce severe inflammation or be innocuous, as when directed to intracellular autoantigens. Autoimmunity can develop spontaneously or be induced experimentally by immunisation with autoantigens or with antigens that are cross-reactive with them.


autonomic ganglion

A collection of cell bodies of neurons within the autonomic nervous system.


autonomic nervous system (ANS)

That branch of the nervous system that is responsible for controlling the activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands of the body.


axiological

Concerned with the theory of value.


B

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

The metabolic rate of an individual who has not eaten for 12 hours, and is at rest and at a comfortable temperature.


base

(in nucleotide) Nitrogen-containing, ring-shaped molecules in DNA and RNA. There are four different bases in a nucleic acid: two with a double-ring structure, called adenine (A) and guanine (G); and three with a single-ring structure, cytosine (C) and either thymine (T), in DNA, or uracil (U), in RNA. It is the sequence of bases which determines the information content of the molecule.


behaviourism

A school of psychology which advocated that only observable behaviour should form the data for a science of psychology.


bioaccumulation

The process by which stable chemicals, for example some pesticides, become increasingly concentrated in the tissues of animals as a consequence of their place in a food chain.


biodiversity

A broad term that includes the whole array of life forms and their component levels of organisation, from genes to ecosystems.


biological determinism

The view that every characteristic of an organism’s structure and functioning, including mental and emotional states in humans, is determined by the genes that an individual has inherited.



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