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An automatic, predictable and relatively stereotyped reaction to a particular stimulus.
Negative reinforcement encourages a particular behaviour pattern by making that behaviour pattern necessary if the animal is to avoid, or escape from, an unpleasant stimulus.
Positive reinforcement encourages a particular behaviour pattern by the presentation of a pleasant stimulus, such as food, every time the desired behaviour pattern is performed.
The process of making new DNA molecules; each strand serves as a template for the synthesis of another, complementary strand. In this way, two new DNA double helices are formed, each having one strand from the ‘old’ original DNA double helix and one newly synthesised strand, i.e. DNA synthesis is semi-conservative.