Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL
Period after a meal during which glucose is entering the bloodstream after its absorption from the gut.
A neurotransmitter. (Adj. cholinergic.)
Transport processes across membranes that require the expenditure of energy and use specialised transport molecules.
A process to do with sensations of pleasure and displeasure.
Focused on an object in its own right, rather than in relation to oneself.
Brain structure with a primary role in motivation and emotion.
amyloid precursor protein (APP)
A large transmembrane glycoprotein, which has been shown to play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, as well as other related cerebral amyloid diseases. APP is made of 695 amino acids (APP-695). In 1988, three research groups simultaneously reported the isolation of cDNA clones that were shown to contain one or two additional domains compared with original APP-695. One of them showed extensive similarity to the Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors (KPI) and resulted in a 56 amino acid insertion within the extracellular domain of the precursor protein. Therefore, the APP gene transcript and the corresponding APP protein that contain the nucleotide sequence or amino acid sequence, respectively, encoding this insert are denoted as KPI-APP or APP-751. APP-695 is predominantly expressed in the brain during development. The level of KPI-APP or APP-751 increased during ageing.
Term describing metabolic reactions that result in the synthesis of materials and in which energy is consumed.
Reduction in the intensity of pain.
A means of specifically relieving pain, e.g. injection of morphine, as distinct from an anaesthetic, which reduces all sensations.
The study of a particular non-human animal in such a way as to reveal general properties, e.g. about how a human might function.
The relentless pursuit of thinness through self-starvation, even as far as death.
An inability to remember new information for any length of time.
That which produces, or increases, anxiety.
Tending to reduce anxiety.
American Psychological Association.
General medical term used to describe a disturbance of speech caused by damage to the brain; strictly, an absence of speech.
apolipoprotein E (ApoE)
Amyloid precursor protein.
Something unnatural that arises as a result of an experimental intervention. For example, a structure that is seen when a cell preparation is examined under the microscope may appear to be a natural cell component, but may actually be the result of an alteration in the cell’s structure caused by the procedures used to prepare the specimen for microscopy.
Derived from a history of associations, as in Pavlovian conditioning.
Learning by experience to associate two events that have been paired (e.g. the sight of a needle with the effect of heroin).
Adenosine triphosphate. Each molecule of ATP is made up of a nucleotide base, a sugar unit and a chain of three phosphate groups. ATP is the energy currency of the cell. Energy is stored as ATP in the reaction between ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and Pi (inorganic phosphate):
ADP + Pi ATP
and is made available as required via the breakdown of ATP to ADP and Pi.
Type of disease in which the immune system of an organism attacks the normal healthy body of the same organism. Autoimmunity or immunological reactions caused by antibodies or T lymphocytes can produce severe inflammation or be innocuous, as when directed to intracellular autoantigens. Autoimmunity can develop spontaneously or be induced experimentally by immunisation with autoantigens or with antigens that are cross-reactive with them.
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Concerned with the theory of value.