Addiction and neural ageing
Addiction and neural ageing

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Glossary


Glossary for SD805_2
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C

carcinogen

A chemical agent that causes cancer.


cardiac arrhythmia

A disturbance to the normal beating of the heart.


cardiac muscle

The specialised muscle, found only in the heart, that is responsible for the regular contraction and relaxation of the heart (heart beat). It is under the control of the autonomic nervous system.


cardiovascular shock

A term used to describe insufficient blood flow to the tissues, such that tissue damage occurs.


Cartesian dualism

The principle, based on the theory of René Descartes, that mind and matter are qualitatively different, and that because the mind does not operate within the laws of physics it cannot be investigated scientifically. Descartes also postulated that the mind (or soul) was unique to humans.


catabolic

Term describing metabolic reactions that result in the breakdown of materials and the release of energy.


catalase (CAT)

An enzyme involved in the process of the removal of highly dangerous hydrogen peroxide from the cell. Catalase catalyses the breakdown of H2O2 to H2O and O2.


catalyst

A substance that speeds up a reaction without itself undergoing any overall change in the process.


catecholamines

A class of neurotransmitters and hormones, including dopamine and noradrenalin.


causal

A causal explanation is one given in terms of the mechanisms that underlie behaviour in a given individual at a particular point in time. It should be distinguished from a functional explanation.



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