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See explicit memory.
An intermediate in androgen and oestrogen biosynthesis.
A group of mental disorders characterised by progressive loss of cognitive and other intellectual functions associated with pathological ageing.
A period in the 1930s in Western economies that was characterised by very high levels of unemployment and poverty.
A region of the body that is associated with a particular spinal nerve.
diabetes mellitus (types I and II)
Clinical condition in which either insulin is absent (type I, insulindependent) or in which insulin responsiveness is lost (type II, non-insulin-dependent). Characterized by the copious production of sweet urine.
differential gene expression
Term describing cells that have become specialised into particular types.
The passive (i.e. non-energy-requiring) movement of a substance from a region where it is at a high concentration to a region where it is at a lower concentration.
A two-ring sugar, e.g. sucrose, lactose.
A stimulus that is paired with either reward (i.e. reinforcer) availability (+) or its lack (−). An animal’s operant behaviour can be brought under the control of a discriminative stimulus such that it responds only in the presence of the reinforcer. In other words, discrimination training involves the association of a discriminative stimulus with a reinforcer.
This theory suggests that older people voluntarily withdraw from society in preparation for death, and in order that society can continue to function.
disposable soma theory
A theory of the evolution of ageing and death, which suggests that organisms derive little benefit from investing resources in maintaining and repairing body tissues and thereby increasing their lifespan beyond a certain point. To do so would be inefficient as death is inevitable and resources that could have been put into reproduction would have been wasted.
diurnal (circadian) rhythm
Non-identical twins. Two individuals that develop in one uterus from separately fertilised eggs. Also called fraternal twins.
Short for deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is a macromolecule made up of individual units called nucleotides, and is found in all living cells and some viruses. The DNA molecule exists as a complex of two chains in an intertwined double helix. It is the carrier of genetic information that is passed on from generation to generation by replication of the DNA molecule.
The idea that mental events and brain events are two aspects of the same underlying reality.
The situation where a lesion at site A produces a disturbance in function X but not Y, and a lesion at site B produces a disturbance in function Y but not X.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (of mental disorder). An American-based reference text; the ‘Bible’ of classification of psychological disorders. DSM I was first published in 1952 and has been updated several times since then. (The number, i.e. I, II, etc., denotes the edition.)
The idea that brain events and mind events are two distinct categories of existence. According to this, the mind can exist even in the absence of a physical brain.
Negative mood, e.g. depression; the opposite of euphoria. (Adjective: dysphoric.)