Addiction and neural ageing
Addiction and neural ageing

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Glossary


Glossary for SD805_2
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N

neuron

A cell that serves to communicate and process information within the nervous system.


neurotransmitter

A small molecule synthesised and released by the nerve endings of nerve cells in the process of transmission of nerve impulses.


neutral stimulus

A stimulus that has no obvious effect in terms of evoking a response. A conditional stimulus prior to conditioning.


neutron

Particle with no electric charge which is present in atomic nuclei.


nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)

Hydrogencarrying coenzyme derived from the vitamin niacin.


N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor

One subtype of glutamate receptor, which binds the amino acid glutamate (a major excitatory neurotransmitter) and mediates its effect in neurotransmission. It is named after the dicarboxylic amino acid N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), an agonist of glutamate used extensively to characterise different isoforms of glutamate receptor.


nociceptor

A neuron that is sensitive to tissue damage at its tip. Normally, the first stage in the process of pain.


non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)

The most common form of diabetes mellitus, in which the responsiveness of cells to insulin is diminished. Thus, although insulin may be present at normal (or near-normal) levels, it is not able to effect its normal regulatory role.

See also diabetes mellitus (type II).

non-manual social classes

Those who fall into this social class are from professional and managerial occupations; sometimes called white-collar workers.


non-shivering thermogenesis

Generation of heat in brown adipose tissue (BAT) by the uncoupling of ATP formation from the electron transport chain. This is an important mechanism for the maintenance of body temperature in newborn babies.



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