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A map of the Mediterranean. Major cities of the period from 1 CE to the end of the classical era are labelled. A key indicates blue shaded areas show the core areas of Greek literary culture, and orange areas indicate the general spread of literary culture. Shaded in blue are much of mainland Greece, the Greek islands, the coasts of modern Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, and an area of Egypt along the Nile. Shaded in orange are larger areas of Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, and some areas of the coasts of Libya, Italy, and Sicily.