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Figure 9 is an array of 8 images arranged into 2 columns and 4 rows. The first column shows 4 products and the second column shows four representations of how polymers can be structured. The four pairs of product and polymer structure are intended to give some indication of how the structure is related to the properties required of the polymer when used in the product. Starting at the top of the illustration, the first product is a high performance sports car. The polymer structure is represented by a number of straight parallel lines. This polymer is called Kevlar, whose rigid rod-like polymer chains align to produce a very stiff and strong material. Next is a plastic bucket. The polymer structure is represented by a single line shown folded in a concertina fashion. This polymer is called high density polyethene (HDPE). The flexible polyethene chains fold up into crystals producing a tough material. The third product is a rubber (elastic) band. The polymer structure is represented by a number of wavy lines criss-crossing each other with dots at some of the cross-overs to indicate that the lines are joined at these points. This polymer is called rubber. In rubber the chains are loosely linked together in a random network to produce an elastic material. The fourth product is a T-shirt. The polymer structure is not represented by lines but by small circles, coloured blue, grey and white, joined by lines to form a three-dimensional lattice structure. The circles represent atoms and the lines represent their bonds. This structure is therefore representing a lot higher magnification than the previous structures. This polymer is called cellulose which is a biopolymer found in cotton, wood and other plant materials. The structure consists of long chains of sugar molecules linked together to form fibres and networks.

 1.2.2 Disposable pens and mass production