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Understanding depression and anxiety
Understanding depression and anxiety

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Figure 4  Mean levels (± SEMs)of (a) adrenocorticotrophic hormone, ACTH, and (b) cortisol, in the blood; (c) heart rate in women who underwent a Trier social stress test. The shaded area shows the duration of the Trier test. Statistically significant differences between groups are indicated on the figure as follows: * between controls and ELS/no MD; § between controls and ELS/MD; ‡ between ELS/no MD and no ELS/MD; † between ELS/MD and no ELS/MD; ¶ between ELS/no MD and ELS/MD.

 1.3  Early life events and stress