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Arnstein’s ladder of participation consists of eight rungs, numbered 1 to 8 and arranged in three groups: non-participation; tokenism and citizen power. The rungs read, from low to high: Rung 1 Manipulation; Rung 2 Therapy; they relate to non-participation. Rung 3 Informing; Rung 4 Consultation; Rung 5 Placation; these all relate of tokenism. Rung 6 Partnership; Rung 7 Delegated power; Rung 8 Citizen control; these all relate to citizen power.