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Session 2: Scientific lessons from the history of infectious diseases

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The figure is a line graph in which the horizontal axis is labelled year and is marked from 1855 to 1880 at 5-year intervals. The vertical axis is labelled infant mortality rate per 1000 live births and is marked from 140 to 240 at intervals of 20 units. The data points, one for each year, are shown as filled circles and are joined by a straight line. The plotted line labelled Stoke-upon-Trent is well above that labelled England and Wales. This shows that infant mortality rate was much higher in Stoke-upon-Trent than in the whole of England and Wales, over the 25-year period. In Stoke-upon-Trent, the values fluctuated between about 180 and 200 deaths per 1000 births, with peaks of around 220 in 1866 and 1871; while in England and Wales, the values fluctuated between about 140 and 160 deaths per 1000 births, dropping to around 130 in 1877 and 1879.