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Series of 5 text boxes running from left to right across the centre of the page, all linked by single arrows pointing left to right. Text boxes are labelled in sequence as follows;

Far left ‘Sender’

Second left ‘encoding the message’

Centre ‘Transmission’

Second right ‘Decoding the message’

Far right ‘Receiver’

Return arrow runs right to left underneath this series from Receiver box to Sender box with one single text box in the centre labelled ‘Feedback’

Above this whole series indicating it can affect any aspect is the text box labelled ‘Noise’.

 3.1 The process model of communications