In this course we have looked at cross-national influences on management practices from an institutional perspective. We have considered the nature of institutions, what sustains institutions and their impacts on business and management practices. The material in this course should equip you to think for yourself about the implications of institutional differences for different areas of management such as human resource management, operations management, marketing and strategy. For example, you might note the lower managerial autonomy in coordinated market economies than in liberal market economies, or think about the implications for a model like Porter's five forces in a context where there is considerable cross-sector coordination through industry associations. Likewise you might think through the implications of a guanaxi-based economy versus a shareholder-based economy for differences for marketing or for raising finance.