Management: perspective and practice
Management: perspective and practice

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Management: perspective and practice

Glossary

Altruism
Selfless concern for the well-being of others
5Ws and an H
Questions beginning “What…”, “Where…”, “Who…”, “Why…”, “When…” and “How…” usually lead to a definitive answer.
Bureaucracy
One of three ideal models of organisational structure introduced by Max Weber (1864-1920), which defines bureaucratic organisations as hierarchical, governed by rules that regulate conduct, and as having a division of labour based on specialisation.
Castles in the air
Hoping in an unrealistic way.
CATWOE
A creative problem solving technique. The letters stand for Customer, Actors, Transformation process, World view, Owner and Environmental constraints.
Differentiation
Segmenting the organisation into subsystems, each of which tends to develop particular attributes in response to the particular demands posed by its relevant external environment.
Feedback
One of the two key dimension (the other being risk) in Deal and Kennedy’s (1982) model of organisational culture. By ‘feedback’ Deal and Kennedy do not mean just bonuses, promotions and pats on the back. They use the term much more broadly to refer to knowledge of results. An organisation’s culture is distinguished by the speed of feedback received, combined with the degree of risk associated with its activities.
Flowline mass production
A system of manufacture commonly used in automotive and consumer products industries in which the products being assembled move through the factory on tracks or conveyor belts. Stationary workers concentrate on one operation or routine only, repeating the task on each product as it passes by. Also known as assembly-line manufacture.
Fordism
A model of industrialisation based on the low-cost mass production of standardised products in large volumes using low-skilled labour, and paying sufficiently high wages that the workers can consume the products. Named after Henry Ford (1863–1947), founder of the Ford Motor Company.
Gareth Morgan
Gareth Morgan wrote the book Images of Organization which contained the ‘metaphors’ model of organisation. The model describes the organisation according to different metaphors: the metaphors enable us to view organisations in different ways and understand different aspects of how they work and their effects on the individual.
Hawthorne effect
Refers to a noted tendency whereby some workers respond to the amount of attention they are given, making them feel valued, rather than to the physical working conditions. It is derived from experiments conducted by George Elton Mayo between 1927-33 at the Hawthorne works of Western Electric. Mayo was studying the relation between the amount of light given and productivity but instead found that the productivity increase in any case due to the researcher’s presence, highlighting the importance of recognition or concern.
Hidebound
Unwilling or unable to change due to tradition or convention
Hofstede’s landmark research
Known as Hofstede’s cultural difference model, this is a model which maps national cultural differences along five dimensions; power distance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance and Confucian/dynamism.
Homeostasis
The properties that allow a system (human or business) to regulate its internal environment, thereby maintaining a constant state of equilibrium.
Human relations
Referring to researchers working in the field of organisational development, studying how people in workplace groups behave. They look at employees not as interchangeable parts within a company, but more in terms of how they fit within the company.
Inter-culturally
In another country or with others of another country
larger slice of the cake
To get a larger share (than others) of rewards, profits, resources etc.
management approaches
How you are managed and how you manage others.
Metaphors
Metaphors are rich sources of information about organisations. They are usually based on implicit images, attitudes or beliefs that persuade us to see, understand and imagine situations in partial ways. It is worth noting that metaphors create insight; but they can also distort.
Monocultures
Homogeneous cultures with little diversity.
Organisational culture
This term is used to help define the mdoes of behaviour that are appropriate in an organisation. Just as in a society, or a particular country, different organisations have different ‘customs’. Often these are unwritten and unspoken, and new employees learn what is appropriate in a particular organisation’s culture over time through socialisation, seeing what others do and listening to how certain actions are viewed by others.
Oxfam
An international charity that works to alleviate poverty and injustice in countries around the world
Paradigm
In everyday speech, a paradigm means an example or model to be followed.
Psychic prisons
A metaphor introduced by Gareth Morgan (1997) to describe the “predicament of human beings as prisoners of their thoughts and actions”.
Resting on its laurels
To be satisfied with your achievements to date and not see the need for further improvement.
Risk
One of two key dimensions (the other being feedback) in Deal and Kennedy’s (1982) model of organisational culture. An organisation’s culture is distinguished by the degree of risk associated with its activites, combined with the speed of feedback received.
To think outside of the box
To think differently from the established way or unconventionally.
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