These are the most tangible aspects that embody organisational culture, such as the type of people employed (personalities, levels of education, etc.), traditions and rituals, technology, architecture, logos, heroes, stories, myths and so on. In the iceberg model, this is what is visible to everybody but which does not necessarily reveal everything about an organisation’s culture. We can take architecture as an example here, how the rich and powerful often build the most impressive buildings as signs of success or artefacts of power – such as in the Canary Wharf business district in the City of London where successful investment banks have set up their headquarters and the Petronas Twin Towers, KLCC, Malaysia (shown in Figure 11).
Stop and reflect
Can you think of other examples from around the world that illustrate this point?