Management: perspective and practice
Management: perspective and practice

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

Free course

Management: perspective and practice

3.1 Artefacts

These are the most tangible aspects that embody organisational culture, such as the type of people employed (personalities, levels of education, etc.), traditions and rituals, technology, architecture, logos, heroes, stories, myths and so on. In the iceberg model, this is what is visible to everybody but which does not necessarily reveal everything about an organisation’s culture. We can take architecture as an example here, how the rich and powerful often build the most impressive buildings as signs of success or artefacts of power – such as in the Canary Wharf business district in the City of London where successful investment banks have set up their headquarters and the Petronas Twin Towers, KLCC, Malaysia (shown in Figure 11).

Stop and reflect

Can you think of other examples from around the world that illustrate this point?

To use this interactive functionality a free OU account is required. Sign in or register.
Interactive feature not available in single page view (see it in standard view).
Described image
Figure 11 The Petronas Twin Towers, KLCC, Malaysia

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371