1.3 Process and philosophy
A study by Crossier (1988) into providing a comprehensive definition of marketing analysed over 50 definitions and identified two broad themes:
- Marketing as a process
Marketing represents a process where an organisation ‘markets’ its products. This process consists of a number of activities which encourage the analysis of marketing opportunities, researching the market, deciding which segments to focus on and so on. From this perspective, marketing represents a structured and standardised approach to marketing management.
- Marketing as a philosophy
Marketing as a philosophy does not necessarily view marketing as a process but as a collection of underlying theories or principles. These place an emphasis on customer satisfaction etc. with perhaps the most important principle being marketing orientation. This refers to how an organisation reflects on, responds to and views its customers as being important to its existence. Viewing marketing as a philosophy encourages an organisation to view all its activities as a collection of principles or values that motivate it to satisfy its customers’ needs.