4.13 Technologies and explicit knowledge
Knowledge-based systems have the ability to analyse specific kinds of information in order to take action. Since we have earlier defined knowledge as arising out of the interpretation of information as mediated by representations, we can claim that in a limited sense such systems can ‘know’ things: they have a representation of part of the world, and they have some rules that allow them to analyse that representation, from which they can decide on a course of action. In that sense, they have interpreted information in order to reach a conclusion, or, as some authors express it, they have ‘reasoned about’ or ‘made inferences about’ the information to derive new knowledge. In this section we will look at what is meant by a knowledge-based system, and how knowledge can be represented formally and ‘reasoned’ about by the system. But first, a brief comment on standardisation.