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Surface water
Surface water

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3.4 Environmental effects of reservoir construction

Reservoirs may totally alter the water resources of a country. Before the Aswan Dam was completed in Egypt, more than half of the 8 × 1010 m3 of water that flowed down the River Nile through Egypt each year ran into the sea. Most of the water can now be used in Egypt, mainly for irrigation, and instead of a single annual crop grown after seasonal flooding, more than one crop can be grown each year. However, advantages such as these must be considered in conjunction with the environmental side-effects of reservoir construction. The major side-effects are detailed below.