4.5 Formulating indicators (iv)
Your indicator of local employment indicates a qualitative change that you expect your project to bring about: the forest provides employment for local people; previously it did not.
To formulate this indicator as a target, you need to incorporate the answers to two further questions. These add dimensions of quantity and time to your qualitative indicator. These three aspects together are sometimes referred to as 'QQT' - quality, quantity and time.
In answering the question 'how many?' you can either use absolute numbers, or percentages. The answer to the question 'by when?' is very often 'by the end of the project'. However, if you have a reason for wanting to meet specific targets before the end of the project, you can specify this. For example: 'by the end of the second year of the project'.
Here is one possible version of this indicator, which illustrates the use of absolute numbers and percentages to answer the question 'how many?'.
Note the indicator refers to 'a variety of forest-based activities'. Since the purpose refers to management for production, recreation and wildlife conservation, you would hope to see evidence of employment creation in all three sectors.
The means of verification is identified as 'project reports', since one would expect project staff to keep an accurate record of this.