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The combined effects of evaporation and transpiration.
A measure of how close air is to saturation with water vapour.
A measure of the volume of water that will flow through a unit cross-sectional area of rock per unit time, under a unit hydraulic gradient and at a specified temperature: K in the
Darcy’s law equation.
The slope of a water table.
Another name for the water cycle.
Hydrologically effective precipitation
The study of water movement on and beneath the ground, and the physics and chemistry of water.
The parts of the Earth that are mainly composed of water.
The managed watering of crops so they can be grown in areas where they could otherwise not be grown, or to improve the yield.
Fresh water derived by condensation from the atmosphere and which accumulates as surface water or underground water.
The maximum evapotranspiration that could take place given an unlimited supply of moisture.
The process involved or the water that is transferred in solid or liquid form from the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface.
When used in connection with the water cycle, this is a part of the hydrosphere that stores water temporarily. Also a means of artificial water storage.
A wedge of seawater under fresh groundwater near a coastline, caused by excessive groundwater extraction.
Surface water with a high TDS; this is seawater in the oceans and some lakes.
The accumulation of salts in the soil that may occur with irrigated agriculture.
The process by which plants draw water from the soil and transfer it to their leaves, from which it evaporates through pores in the leaf system.