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Formal acknowledgment that an organisation or service is committed to
understanding autism and making appropriate adjustments to accommodate it.
The ability to employ the practical, everyday skills needed to function, including the skills necessary to effectively and independently take care of
oneself and to interact with other people.
A term used for what
happens to children with autism once they have become adults. It encompasses
psychological and social outcomes, including changes in language processing and
use, independence and mental health.
The use of domestic
and wild animals (pets or dolphins for instance) to reduce stress, focus
attention and improve communication in people with autism. As yet the evidence
that this is effective is unclear, although it may be beneficial for some.
Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA)
A group of comprehensive
behavioural interventions evolved from an approach pioneered by Ivar Lovaas and
based on the work of Skinner. ABA employs operant conditioning and
reinforcement to shape the person’s behaviour, aiming to increase ‘desirable’
behaviours and reduce ‘undesirable’ behaviours. (See also operant conditioning and reinforcement).
term which has been used in the diagnosis of people on the spectrum who are
intellectually capable and with many intact language skills. The main
diagnostic classifications, DSM and ICD, are relinquishing this and other
sub-types of autism, following recognition that they cannot be reliably
The use of
technological aids, such as smartphones, video modelling or robots, to assist
people with autism or learning difficulties in daily living or to learn new
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
characterised by inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Although not
linked to intelligence, ADHD may disrupt learning.