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This is a black-and-white aerial photograph taken in nineteen forty-four. At the top there is a Boeing B-17 aeroplane (Flying Fortress) silhouetted against a snow-capped mountain range in the distance. The bottom of the photo shows an aerial perspective of the town of Cassino and the hill on which the abbey stands. The peak of the hill is obscured by a huge cloud of smoke – the result of a recent bombardment.

 2.1 The destruction of Monte Cassino